International Conference on Buddhist Manuscript Cultures: Abstracts

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  1. T. H. Barrett (SOAS, University of London 英國倫敦大學亞非學院): Liu Yan’s 劉宴 (716-780) Essay on “Three religions”: Its Manuscripts Found in Dunhuang and Japan

The eminent financial expert Liu Yan 劉宴 (716-780) is better known for his fiscal innovations than for his writings on Buddhism.  Yet an essay of his on Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism was found at Dunhuang and was even published by Makita Tairyō in 1961 in the Japanese volume in honour of Tsukamoto Zenryū.  This essay was however known at least in part in seventeenth century Japan a couple of centuries before it was rediscovered at Dunhuang, as can be shown by a substantial quotation by a commentator of that period.  The purpose of this paper therefore is to introduce this second source on Liu’s essay and to reflect on the status of the Dunhuang manuscript archive in relation to materials transmitted by other means.

  1. Sainbileg Byambadorj (National Library of Mongolia 蒙古國家圖書館): Establishment of Mongolian Collections of Buddhism: Highlights of Physical Appearances and Translations

Mongolian Buddhism has more than seven hundred years’ history. Mongolian collections of Buddhism were established from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. Mongolian Buddhist collections refer to the Mongolian Buddhist Canon and handwritten, block-printed texts. As many countries did, Mongolians adopted scripts, book producing technologies and translation methodology from other countries who previously imported Buddhism from India. However, every step of development of producing books and translating Buddhist texts of Mongols exemplified own specific contributions to Buddhist culture. In this paper, I will introduce panoramic view of the Mongolian collections. I will discuss some important characteristics of productions by reflecting upon important aspects, periodization of translations and multilingual texts. Actually, Mongolian Buddhist collections are rich and diverse, but they have not studied satisfactory by global scholars. Therefore, I expect, this paper will be helpful to those who interest in Mongolian Buddhism and collections.

  1. Chen Jidong 陳繼東(青山學院大學): 布袋和尚在日本的變容: 《布袋物語》之考察

布袋和尚在宋代以後的中國,作為彌勒菩薩的化身,廣為民眾信仰,成為中國佛教的一個重要象徴。布袋的信仰,也很早傳入了日本,在文學、藝術(繪畫和雕刻)等領域,出現了眾多作品,反映了在日本容受的狀況。在此接受過程中,有關布袋的記述以及人物畫像,在內容和人物特徵等方面,多與中國不同,而以往的研究對此卻較少關注。這裡,我將對被視為日本室町時代撰寫的文學作品《布袋物語》,與中國成立的各種布袋傳記進行比較,展示中日兩國布袋形象的異同,以此說明布袋在日本的變容。

  1. Chen Jinhua 陳金華 (UBC 加拿大英屬哥倫比亞大學): 東亞宗教多媒質資料與跨學科研究芻議

佛學研究者多奉刊本《大藏經》為圭臬,而忽略寫本《大藏經》以及碑銘、摩崖、圖像、族譜、方志等藏外文獻,此外諸藏中晚出文獻徵引早出文獻的豐富資料也未受到足夠重視。東亞宗教文本的載體形式,是從寫本到刊本的嬗變,不啻傳播媒質的一場真正的革命。與寫本相比,刊本可以讓無數人隨時、隨機地獲取存儲於一種易簡的、廉價的載體中標準化了的知識;其影響所及,不僅改變了宗教觀念和實踐的網絡,甚至會衝擊社會的制度性結構以及文化知識體系。伴隨互聯網誕生的數碼載體,是傳播媒質的又一次大躍進;對人文科學而言,既是挑戰也是機遇。我們不但要研究東亞宗教對技術的影響,也應考察後者如何影響前者的發展。新媒質的產生,並不意味舊媒質的滅絕,寫本的生命力在於讀者/抄寫者/編者無休止的「協商」中推陳出新;宗教文本在多媒質並存的網絡中流通,形成獨特的「書業市場」。在這一流變多元的網絡中,「中心」與「邊地」的關係並非人們所想象得那麼單純,兩者的距離不僅是地理上的,同時也是文化上;而「邊地」的後發優勢,體現在經過尊崇、追隨、模仿「中心」之後,給文化及宗教範式帶來了一些創造性的形塑與重塑,從而變得比中心更為「中心」。

  1. Chen Ruifeng 陳瑞峰 (McMaster University 加拿大麥克馬斯特大學): A Survey of the Dunhuang Chinese Manuscripts of the Youposai jie jing 優婆塞戒經 (Sūtra on Upāsaka Precepts) and a Study of Their Colophons

In this paper I survey the extant Dunhuang Chinese manuscripts of the Youposai jie jing 優婆塞戒經 (T no. 1488) from Dunhuang, a pivotal city on the Silk Road in medieval China, to try to determine how many Chinese manuscripts of this Buddhist text are preserved in Dunhuang corpus. I also study the colophons on these manuscripts to understand the purposes for which medieval Chinese Buddhists in Dunhuang copied this scripture.

As far as I know, there are 57 fragments of Dunhuang Chinese manuscripts of the Youposai jie jing. In addition, there are two fragments (Дx 9431 and Дx 14344) that may be from the Youposai jie jing, and one fragment, S. 8099, which has not yet been published. After studying the colophons from nine manuscripts, I learnt that the medieval Chinese Buddhists in Dunhuang patronized or copied this scripture to create blessings for the deceased father and praying for meeting Maitreya, neither of which is the main theme or is consistent with the contents of this scripture. This contradiction suggests interesting relationships between the medieval Chinese Buddhists’ aspirations for copying Buddhist scriptures and the contents of these scriptures.

  1. Daisy Sze Yui Cheung (University of Hamburg 德國漢堡大學): How a Buddhist Sanskrit Manuscript Travels from India and Nepal to Germany via Tibet: Göttingen Cod. Ms. Sanscr. 259 and Kambala’s Navaślokī

After the Muslim conquest of East India in the 12th century, many Indian Buddhist monks sought refuge in Nepal and Tibet, bringing their sacred books (i.e. Sanskrit palm-leaf manuscripts) with them. These palm-leaf manuscripts were subsequently studied and translated by Indian, Nepalese and Tibetan scholars of that time. However, several hundred years later the Sanskrit manuscripts in Tibet were largely forgotten by the Tibetans. They lay covered in dust on book-shelves in libraries and monasteries, until the 1930s when Rāhula Sāṅkṛtyāyana “rediscovered” these Sanskrit manuscripts again in his three expeditions to Tibet. One of these Sanskrit manuscripts is Göttingen Cod.ms.sanscr.259, which Sāṅkṛtyāyana discovered in the Sakya monastery in 1936. It was subsequently brought back to India by Mr. Kanwal Krishna, one of Sāṅkṛtyāyana’s travel companion in his 1938 Tibet trip. Later it was bought by Prof. Gustav Roth in India and was brought to Germany in 1978. It is now preserved in the Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek, Göttingen.

Göttingen Cod.ms.sanscr.259 is a multi-text Sanskrit manuscript. It contains Kambala’s Navaślokī (Aṣṭasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitāpiṇḍārtha) together with the auto-commentary, and a fragment of Abhayākaragupta’s Āmnāyamañjarī. Navaślokī is Kambala’s summary of the Aṣṭasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitā in 9 verses, which is extant in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese. It is an important text for us to understand late Indian Buddhist philosophy, especially the so-called Yogācāra-Madhyamika school. The Sanskrit text of the Navaślokī has been published several times (root text at least two times, root text with commentary once), but none of the Sanskrit editions have made use of the Göttingen manuscript. The Sanskrit text of Navaślokī and its commentary as transmitted in Göttingen Cod.ms.sanscr.259 provides better readings in many places. In this paper I will provide a few better readings in order to improve upon the existing Sanskrit editions. In the future I hope to bring out a new critical edition of the Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese text of the Navaślokī (with commentary) based on all available sources.

I will investigate the available textual evidence and attempt to answer the following complicated research questions: What is the date of Kambala the author of the Navaślokī? Is Kambala the author of the Navaślokī the same as Kambala the author of the Ālokamālā? Is he Siddha Kambala? How many Kambalas are there?

The Navaślokī together with commentary has been translated into Chinese by Dharmapāla 法護 during the Song dynasty. This Chinese translation, which is included in the Taishō Tripitaka (Taishō no. 1516《聖佛母般若波羅蜜多九頌精義論》), has not been adequately studied before. After comparing the Chinese translation of the text with the Sanskrit original and its corresponding Tibetan translation, I find the quality of the Chinese translation to be quite good. I will comment on a few variant readings in the Chinese translation at the end of this paper.

  1. Mark Dennis (Texas Christian University 美國德克薩斯基督教大學): An Investigation of the Relationship between Prince Shōtoku’s Shōmangyō-gisho and Two Dunhuang Buddhist Manuscripts: A Debate over Originality and Canonical Value-Part II

This presentation will examine the relationship between Nai 93 and Tama 24—two manuscript fragments discovered at Dunhuang—and the Shōmangyō-gisho, a Buddhist text written in classical Chinese that has traditionally been attributed to Japan’s Prince Shōtoku (574–622). The presentation will elaborate on an article I published in the “Annotations” section of Manuscript Studies titled “An Investigation of the Relationship Between Prince Shōtoku’s Shōmangyō-gisho and Two Dunhuang Buddhist Manuscripts: A Debate over Originality and Canonical Value” (Fall 2017: 499-507). That 3,000-word article offered a brief introduction to the Japanese scholar Fujieda Akira’s discovery that the text attributed to Shōtoku clearly postdates and is strikingly similar to these Dunhuang manuscripts.

Fujieda’s research, some of which was produced in collaboration with Koizumi Enjun, caused heated scholarly debate by seeming to question the text’s value and led to the production of a substantial body of research in the late 1960s and 1970s seeking to clarify the relationship between the Shōmangyō-gisho and the Dunhuang manuscripts. These scholarly efforts were seen to be crucial in Shōtoku Studies because perceptions of the Shōmangyō-gisho’s originality have been central to its perceived value and canonical status. This research, which continues in the present, can be viewed as part of the broader search for the “true record,” a goal that has informed much of the scholarship on the Shōmangyō-gisho and two other Buddhist commentaries attributed to the prince. This presentation will elaborate on the Manuscript Studies article by focusing on how scholars who support the Shōmangyō-gisho’s canonical status have tried to respond to the key findings of Fujieda and Koizumi.

  1. Feng Jing 馮婧 (Cambridge University 英國劍橋大學): Continuity and Discontinuity: Some Reflections on the Layout of the Dunhuang Manuscripts

In recent years, there has been an increased interest in studying manuscripts as physical objects. As part of the new approach towards manuscripts, this essay focuses on the layout of the Dunhuang manuscripts and presents three aspects of it: the arrangement of titles, the design of lists of headings and the alternate use of two character sizes. The above-mentioned three aspects illustrate how texts were structured and presented visually and reveal how people utilised different skills to built clear structure within texts and denote the hierarchies of knowledge in medieval China. More importantly, this essay examines the medieval layout from a broader perspective and traces their origins in early manuscripts and later developments in printed books. Through breaking boundaries of different vehicles for textual transmission, this research grants us better understanding of the continuity and discontinuity between early manuscripts and medieval manuscripts, between manuscripts and printed books, and further, the role medieval layout played in Chinese book culture.

  1. Imre Galambos 高奕睿 (Cambrodge 英國劍橋大學): Hyphenation-type marks in Chinese manuscripts from Dunhuang and Khara-khoto

Hyphenation marks are not a device usually associated with Chinese texts because, as a rule, the script has no notational apparatus for marking word boundaries. While it is tempting to explain this with the predominantly monosyllabic nature of the earliest strata of written sources, this assumption fails to explain why such notation was not introduced in later periods when compound words became used in large number. In fact, modern Chinese writing still does not mark word boundaries, and neither does Japanese. When Western-style punctuation was introduced in the twentieth century, no notation was implemented for marking word boundaries, which is a clear sign that the users of the script did not think it was important.

Punctuation marks in general were not compulsory in Chinese manuscripts and we know of no attempts to standardize them, which is why there is a great deal of inconsistency in their use. Looking at the Dunhuang manuscripts, the majority of which were produced during the ninth-tenth centuries, we can say that punctuation marks were typically used in less formal contexts, in manuscripts intended for personal use or pragmatic purposes, as opposed to official copies of authoritative texts which were executed in a highly consistent manner. Despite the variety of functions punctuation marks had, marking bits of text split by a line break was usually not a necessity. Yet there is a handful of manuscripts from Dunhuang and Khara-khoto that contain examples of such marks, which have a function that is similar to the line-end hyphenation used in the West. This brief paper introduces such examples and attempts to outline the functionality of the mark. Purely for the sake of convenience, I will refer to them as “hyphenation marks,” although as we will see, despite some similarities, they also exhibit a number of discrepancies in comparison with those used in the West.

  1. Agnieszka Helman-Wazny (University of Hamburg 德國漢堡大學): Manuscripts from the Silk Roads: Stories Told by Paper

This study outlines some of the crucial aspects of research on the earliest surviving archive of paper preserved in the manuscripts found along the Silk Roads and dated to the first millennium. The objects in this study are Chinese, Tibetan, Uighur, Manichaean, Tokharian and Sogdian manuscripts drawn from the Stein Collection in the British Library in London; the Turfan collection in the Berlin Brandenburg Academy of Sciences (BBAW) and the Berlin State Library (BSL); the Pelliot collection in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris; and the Oldenburg collection in the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts in St. Petersburg. The examined manuscripts contain the earliest written on paper and surviving examples of literacy, artistic expression, scribal practice and recorded materials. Study of paper offer a story of the manuscript that critically supplements its content, revealing the untold details of its making. By using fiber analysis and the technological study of paper combined with codicological and textual information, research has aimed to explore the possibilities for dating these materials and fingerprinting their places of origin. The fact that many of Chinese manuscripts being studied (which are the oldest preserved and dated artefacts from Central Asia) are fixed in time by dates mentioned in colophons makes them valuable and reliable references for building a typology of paper, and for comparative study of any yet to be discovered papers from that region. Thus, this study to some extent also informs us about the technological transfer of local knowledge on papermaking spread along the Silk Roads (or Paper Roads).

  1. George Keyworth 紀强 (University of Saskatchewan 加拿大薩斯喀徹溫大學): “On Manuscript editions of the Suvaraprabhāsottama-sūtra 金光明最勝王經from Dunhuang and Ancient Japan”

Based upon colophons to manuscript editions of Buddhist texts found at Dunhuang and in Nara and Heian (710-1185) Japan, Yijing’s義淨 (635-713) translation of the Suvara-prabhāsottama-sūtra 金光明最勝王經 (Z no. 158, T no. 665) was unquestionably one of the most important scriptures for a variety of this-worldly reasons. While several important studies of the Suvaraprabhāsottama-sūtra in Tibetan, Khotanese, and in Japan have been published (Nobel 1958, Skjærvø 2004, Ludvik 2007, Sango 2015), little to no attention has been awarded to how often and cautiously this scripture was copied in manuscript form across East Asia from the 8th to 13th centuries. First, using colophons I will survey evidence from Dunhuang of a special status for the Suvaraprabhāsottama. Next, I examine colophons and surviving ritual paraphernalia that speak to specific veneration of the Suvaraprabhāsottama in Japan. Then I investigate several rolls from the Matsuo shrine canon 松尾社一切經 that not only show how long after the scriptures were initially copied the Suvaraprabhāsottama seems to have been an object of reverence for this community, but also why we find kundoku 訓讀 readings for rolls 4 (with the most pure dhāraī chapter 最淨地陀羅尼品第六) and 8 (with chapters on Sarasvatī 大辯才天女品第十五之二, Śrīmahādevī (Lakṣmī) 大吉祥天女品第十六, Śrīmahādevī increasing benefits 大吉祥天女增長財物品第十七, the earth goddess Dŗḍhāya-mahāpṛthivīdevatayā 堅牢地神品第十八, Saṃjñāya (a Yakṣa general) 僧慎爾耶藥叉大將品第十九, and “Instructions concerning Divine Kings” 王法正論品第二十). Finally, I address the question: what can this evidence of hand-copying the Suvaraprabhāsottama-sūtra across East Asian tell us about the people who used and produced it?

  1. Kim Jiyun 金知姸 (Geumgang University 韓國金剛大學): Distribution and Preservation of the manuscript of Shi moheyan lun 釋摩訶衍論 in East Asia

The Shi moheyan lun 釋摩訶衍論 (T 1668; abbreviated as SML) is one of many extant commentaries on the Awakening of Mahāyāna Faith 大乘起信論 (T 1666). Like the Awakening of Mahāyāna Faith, the SML has held an important place in East Asian Buddhism, attested to by the existence of more than three hundred subcommentaries composed in China and Japan such as the Shi moheyan run ji 釋摩訶衍論記, and much modern research such as that done by Kashiwagi Hirō 栢木弘雄.

However, although the SML putatively ascribed to the great Indian philosopher Nāgārjuna (2-3rd century), the doubts regarding the text’s authorship can be seen expressed from as early as 779, when the Japanese monk Kaimyō 戒明 brought the SML from Tang China to Japan. The time of production accordingly has been questioned, and it is estimated to be around the 8th century by Mochizuki Shinko 望月信亨, Kim Jiyun金知姸, etc. Then, how the SML was distributed from the time of publishing to now? Are they the same texts? No clear answers have been provided until now.

The key to the solution of these problems is the consideration of the extant manuscripts and woodblock-printed book of the SML. The Japanese scholar Nasu Seiryu 那須政隆 have only paid attention to the manuscript, but it was just putting the woodblock-printed book of SML which is housed in the Narita成田 Library into print. Therefore, I would like to shed light on various other manuscripts and woodblock-printed books of SML.

First, I examine the manuscripts and woodblock-printed books of SML which were made by different times and places: Dunhuang 敦煌 manuscript in the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ishiyama-dera石山寺 manuscript, Fangshan shijing 房山石經 (N.1073), Tripitaka Koreana 高麗大藏經 (K1397) of Woljeongsa月精寺Temple, manuscripts in National Diet Library 國立國會圖書館, Todai-ji 東大寺 Library, Tokyo University 東京大學  Library, Omani University 大谷大學  Library, Minobusan University 身延山大學 Library, and Toyo University 東洋大學  Library. Based on them, I try to reveal what is the relation to these manuscripts and how the SML was brought from China to Japan through Korea.

Next, I make a comparison with of texts and I tabulate results which show their differences. More specifically, I centered around the manuscripts of Dunhuang which remains three pages (дх3855[1], дх3855[2], дх3855[3]) and Ishiyama-dera which could check four pages (the first and last pages of the first and fifth volume respectively of the book 石山寺古經聚英) because they are presumed to be oldest. By comparing, I would like to verify that the texts of SML were distributed the same form or changed in process of propagation through East Asia.

There was no apparent record that when and where the SML was made, so it is the only way to infer the historical stream from the extant manuscripts. Therefore, I treat the manuscripts of the SML, and reveal how the SML was conveyed. Furthermore, by comparing and finding differences of them, I find modification and system of editions between them.

  1. Long Darui 龍達瑞 (University of the West 美國西來大學): A Preliminary Report on the Chinese Buddhist Literature Kept at Jagiellonian Library in Poland

In 2010, three Polish scholars published A preliminary report on the Wanli Kanjur kept in the Jagiellonian Library, Kraków. The world began to know that Jagiellonian Library has an incomplete collection of Tibetan Kanjur printed in the Wanli period (1573-1620),as well as many other Tibetan texts, manuscripts and xylographs. The library also possesses a huge collection of Chinese Buddhist literature, including the Yongle Northern Canon.  There is a scripture that does not belong to Buddhist canon, or Daoist canon, or baojuan 寶卷.  In June 2017, the author rediscovered one volume of Saddharmapudarīka Sūtra in the Tangut language, which is particularly precious as it is the only extant copy in the world. Three volumes are still missing.

These volumes of the Tibetan Kanjur and the Yongle Northern Canon were obtained by a German scholar and collector named Eugen Pander. He got acquainted with the Tibetan Buddhist reincarnated Master Thu’u bkvan Khutugtu of Yonghe Temple in Beijing. Pander obtained over 700 artefacts and huge book collection including Tibetan texts. They were shipped to Berlin around 1889.   They were placed in the Museum of Ethnography in Berlin and later moved to the State Library.

In 1943, the Allied Forces began to bomb Berlin and the Germans made an effort to hide their treasures.  They transported 500 boxes of books from the State Library in Berlin to a castle Książ, and then to the Cistercian Monastery in Krzeszów.  After WWII the region was on the Polish side of the border.  All the treasures, including Beethoven’s manuscript of the “Ninth Symphony,” and Mozart’s manuscript of “Magic Flute,” were transferred as a deposit to the Jagiellonian Library in Kraków.

The author visited Jagiellon University twice in 2016 and 2017.  He is planning to visit Poland again to examine its collection of Yongle Northern Canon and other Buddhist manuscripts.

  1. Lu Yang 陸揚 (Peking University 北京大學):  The making of Buddhist exegetical tradition in medieval China: new evidences from medieval epigraphy and manuscript

 

  1. Costantino Moretti (École française d’Extrême-Orient 法國遠東學院): Philological and Codicological Notes on a Buddhist Cosmological Chart in the Dunhuang Manuscript Collection

Manuscript P.2824 contains a beautiful and complex cosmological chart which represents theBuddhist universe, and is certainly one of the most fascinating and interesting documents found among the thousands of manuscripts of the French collection of Dunhuang material acquired by Paul Pelliot at the beginning of the last century. With a captivating combination of iconography and text, this vertical scroll, entitled Chart of the Three Realms and the Nine Lands (Sanjie jiudi zhi tu 三界九地之圖), provides the practitioner with a schematic representation of Buddhist cosmology which is linked to specific scriptural sources. The latter accompany the illustrations and help explain of the multiple elements constituting the various planes of existence, which are arranged one on top of the other, in their tripartite division, along the central structure of Mount Sumeru, acting as an axis mundi.

In a recent paper which is the current reference work on the subject, Professor Françoise Wang-Toutain has analyzed each component of this chart providing an in-depth study of the cosmological aspects of this complex scroll. In the present paper I would like to point out a few additional philological and codicological considerations concerning a specific enigmatic text block which accompanies the lower section of the chart where the realm of the hells is represented. At first glance, the precise nature of this passage, composed of only thirteen columns, is extremely difficult to determine due to the puzzling sequential order of the various sentences which would seem to be mixed up in a somewhat chaotic way and result in an incomprehensible text. In the present analysis, I will argue that the enigmatic structure of this textual unit is the consequence of a macroscopic scribal error, linked not only to erroneous copying of the source-text itself but also to changes in its layout. By retracing the hypothetical copying phases, and reconstructing the textual layout of the source-manuscript, I will show how the scribe, produced a corrupt and incomprehensible inscription from a coherent source text. Furthermore, this analysis will lead us to more general considerations concerning scribal work, manuscript copying and production processes.

  1. Asuka Sango (Carleton College 美國卡爾頓學院): Buddhist Debate (rongi) and the Production of Shōgyō Manuscript in Medieval Japan

Medieval scholar monks in Japan produced a massive body of texts—sacred works or shōgyō. This paper focuses on one such monk, the Tōdaiji monk Sōshō (1202–1278), who produced the total of 351 bound books and 129 handscrolls. Sōshō produced most of his texts in the process of preparing for and participating in state-sponsored debate rituals (rongie). Modern scholars have tended to depict debate-related textual production primarily as a tool for upward social mobility, but I will reveal its intellectual significance. Sōshō copied various types of texts as different cognitive tools, appropriate for particular stages of learning. In addition, Sōshō’s texts were not only the means and products of his learning, but their circulation and transmission generated social relations such as a lineage. This paper will demonstrate the intellectual and socio-political importance of the production of shōgyō in medieval Japan.

  1. SHENG Kai 聖凱 (Tsing-hua University 清華大學): 《大乘義章》的組織結構與思想框架——以敦煌遺書《菩薩藏眾經要》比較為中心

西魏、北周《菩薩藏眾經要》與東魏、北齊《大乘義章》皆是繼承北魏地論學派的傳承而有不同的展開。《菩薩藏眾經要》代表著西魏、北周佛教融合南朝佛教「經抄」的最新成果,依「五門」——佛性門、眾生門、修道門、諸諦門、融門等形成《一百二十法門》的框架。《大乘義章》是北朝佛教「義章」類的佛法綱要,其「五聚」的框架結構與「教理行果」「法寶五義」(教法、理法、助道法、涅槃法、化用法)完全相應,否定了有些學者強調《大乘義章》是借鑒《成實論》「四諦」的組織結構說法。最後,《菩薩藏眾經要》是根據「法門」摘錄相應的經論文字;而《大乘義章》則是引用經論而進行自己的闡釋,根據「諸門分別」去剖析法義的內涵與同異。因此,後者在編撰意圖與義學成就上,比前者更能體現北朝佛學的最高義學水平。

  1. Henrik H. Sørensen (Ruhr-Universität Bochum 德國波鴻大學): “Donations and the Production of Buddhist Scriptures in Dunhuang during the 10th Century.”

This presentation will primarily address those Buddhist scriptures we encounter as part of the circuit of giving during the Guiyijun-rule (848– c. 1037), their contexts and the purposes for which they were created. While canonical scriptures tend to be dominant as votive gifts, a good part of the scriptures that were commissioned for donation to the local Buddhist establishments in Dunhuang were apocryphal in nature, something which reflects on the manner in which Buddhist beliefs and practices spread in China during the 10th century. A series of case-studies will serve as the basis for this presentation.

  1. Brian Steininger (Princeton美國普林斯頓大學): “Prayers for Mediation: 13th-Century Textual Culture between Kōya and Kamakura

This paper examines several esoteric doctrinal texts printed on Mt. Kōya in the late 1270s by the shogunate official Adachi Yasumori (1231-1285). Conventional histories of Japanese xylography follow a developmental sequence from devotional printing by wealthy aristocrats in the classical (Heian) period, through limited educational printing by temples in the medieval period, to the arrival of widespread commercial printing in the early modern period. This paper examines the complex interplay of soteriological, practical, political, and commercial elements in one medieval printing project to both critique an “ends”-based typology of textual reproduction and further develop recent arguments on the role of esoteric Buddhism in coordinating medieval power centers.

  1. Tong Ling 童嶺 (Nanking University 南京大學: 中國中世紀儒教與佛教的鈔本文化

中國中世紀的大部分時間裡面,雖然早期交雜著簡牘的使用,但在晉末逐漸被廢止,完全廢止大概要到南北朝之末。故而,儒教與佛教書籍在中世紀最重要的文化載體,還是鈔本。

中國中世紀儒教經學史領域,受到逐漸隆盛的佛教影響,佛經解釋之際的討論形式也被儒教經典解釋吸納。六朝至隋唐之間,對經注和經傳進行繁瑣注釋的學問勃興起來。這樣對注的注,稱為“義”或“疏”,這種學問被稱為“義疏學”。比如原藏日本奈良興福寺舊鈔本《講周易疏論家義記殘卷》殘卷等等。

鑑真大師於唐天寶十二載(753)渡海赴日本傳法,據《唐大和上東征傳》,鑑真大師帶去的除了佛經鈔本,還有王羲之的真跡。又如:與隋唐天台宗有密切關係的鈔本《弘決外典鈔》,其中也含有與義疏學關係密切的部分。而佛教鈔本中引用的這些儒教義疏學典籍,很多是目前已經亡佚掉的珍貴文獻。學術意義非常重要。

  1. Leonard van der kuijp (Harvard 美國哈佛大學): Apropos of the Manuscript Transmission of Sa skya Paṇḍita’s (1182-1251) Tshad ma rigs pa’i gter

The transmission of the verse text of Sa skya Paṇḍita’s Tshad ma rigs pa’i gter [of circa 1219] and the auto-commentary is shot through with a large number of fundamental text-critical problems. These problems already begin with the way in which the verse text was structured. Disciples of Sa skya Paṇḍita himself, the earliest commentators Ldong ston Shes rab dpal (circa 1260) and ‘U yug pa Rigs pa’i seng ge (ca. 1195-after 1267) wrote their studies of what I presume was the verse text in, respectively, thirteen and eight chapters. On the other hand, the printing blocks for the so-called Mongol xylograph (hor par ma) of the auto-commentary that were prepared in Dadu [more or less present-day Beijing] in 1284 had eleven chapters, which suggests that the verse text with which its editors were working had an identical number of chapters. Indeed, the auto-commentary in all likelihood included from the very beginning the verses of the verse text. Printing blocks for the verse text were carved during the fifteenth century and this gave rise to more problems of interpretation, as Glo bo Mkhan chen Bsod nams lhun grub (1456-1532) pointed out on a number of occasions in his 1482 study of the auto-commentary. The 1736 printing blocks of the verse text and auto-commentary that were carved in Sde dge make it quite clear that the original manuscripts of the verse text and the auto-commentary contained verses that had quite different filiations, thereby creating a disturbing dissonance between them.

  1. Alan G. Wagner (CRCAO, CNRS 法國國家科學研究中心 / Collège de France 法國法蘭西學院): The Discourse Record of Layman Ruru, Transformed into Canonical Liturgical Materials

The collected writings of literatus and lay Zen Master Yan Bing 顏丙 (d. 1212), which circulated throughout East Asia as the Discourse Record of Layman Ruru 如如居士語錄 in woodblock and manuscript editions up to seven volumes in length, comprises a remarkably wide range of genres including essays, verses, prayers, detailed ritual protocols, Pure Land texts, and records of his formal “seated” Zen teachings. Here we consider how some pieces from this collection were integrated into later liturgical texts, often being edited, reworked and repurposed in the process.

This study expands the initial inquiry I performed as part of my doctoral research, which found ten pieces by Yan in Deyin’s 德因 Assembled Sages Discourse Record 集賢語錄 (Z1277), in addition to the inclusions already known in the Ritual Amplification of the Diamond Sūtra 金剛經科儀 (Z1494). Here the number in Deyin’s collection is increased to sixty-seven, covering a wide range of liturgical « modules » and demonstrating the fluid evolution that can occur in this type of literature. I also uncover a third source,Zhongfeng’s Rites for the Three Periods of Attentive Recitation 中峯三時繫念儀範 (Z1465), a cycle of daily Pure Land rites associated with Chan Master Zhongfeng Mingben 中峰明本 (1263–1323) which incorporates part of an invocation Yan wrote for celebrating Amitābha’s birthday.

I conclude that the Discourse Record of Layman Ruru was an important source for the development of lay Buddhist piety and devotion during the Southern Song and Yuan, and that more investigation is likely to reveal that Yan’s influence extends even further than is currently known.

  1. Wang Lina 王麗娜 (Peking University北京大學/National Library of China 中國國家圖書館):漢譯四部廣律中的佛傳研究

律藏中,佛陀為了說明法義或某一制度往往產生各種制戒因緣,因此關於佛及其弟子的事跡在律藏中有不少記載。律藏一般被認為文學興味淡薄,但《律藏》中佛陀及其弟子傳記主要是些有趣的故事。律藏佛傳主要見於《銅牒律》、《四分律》、《五分律》中的「受戒鍵度」部分。這幾部廣律在成立「十眾受具」以前都有次第連貫的佛傳,但需要注意的是《十誦律》中沒有佛傳。
律藏中佛傳的內容包括了王統次第、釋迦族興起、太子四門出遊,剔發出家(花數金請求龍護菩薩),化諸弟子、詣瓶沙王、提婆達多破僧、三月食馬麥。律典佛傳內容表達多平鋪直敘,較少使用修辭手法和華美辭藻,文體上主要使用長行,其間含有問答體偈頌。律藏佛傳主要是制戒事緣,並非有意書寫佛傳,所以沒有內容完整的佛傳。「這些事跡,不是次第連貫的、敘述詳細的佛傳」。早期律典佛傳是後起佛陀傳記的重要來源。而漢地撰寫僧傳的基本都是律師,很可能受到律藏佛傳的歷史影響。

  1. Wang Xiaolin 王小林 (City University of Hong Kong 香港城市大學): The Manuscript of Man’yōshū 萬葉集 and the Thought of Tathāgata-garbha

Japan’s earliest literary anthology Man’yōshū 萬葉集 (Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) has nearly twenty different extant manuscripts preserved by various libraries. The most distinctive feature of the Man’yōshū lies in the combined use of Chinese characters in both purely phonographic (man’yōgana) and logographic functions. The variety of orthography in the anthology and among the different manuscripts causes great difficulties in the literary interpretation of the Man’yōshū. Buddhism is the most important religious source of the Man’yōshū, and this paper intends to use the example of a manuscript from chapter six of Man’yōshū to discuss the possibility that the ideas of the Tathāgatagarbha sūtra had been introduced to Japan at that time and how it impacted Japanese monks. At the same time, I also hope to put forward my own opinions on the interpretation and application of the manuscript in Sino-Japanese cultural contexts.

  1. Wei Zheng 韋正 (Peking University 北京大學): The Inscription of The Fifth Year of Jianhong in No.169 Grotto of Bingling Temple and the Age of the Sixth Shrine: Along with The Age when the Flower Adornment Sutra spread into the Helong Region 炳灵寺169窟“建弘五年”题记与第6龛的年代问题——兼及《大方广佛华严经》传入河陇地区的年代

炳灵寺169窟“建弘元年”(420年)题记为“建弘五年”(424年)的可能性大。与第6龛相距最近的不是西方三圣雕塑,而是壁画释迦牟尼佛和弥勒菩萨。在第6龛塑像与释迦、弥勒壁画之间还有壁画十方佛。佛驮跋陀罗译《大方广佛华严经》不太可能在建弘元年就传播到河陇地区。西方三圣塑像也与《大方广佛华严经》没有关系。“建弘五年”题记中提及“慈氏”,这正好与壁画中的弥勒菩萨相应。因此,“建弘五年”题记所指当是壁画释迦、弥勒与十方佛,第6龛的年代要晚。《大方广佛华严经》传播到河陇地区当与东晋南朝经益州与吐谷浑等地保持良好关系有关。