- ABÉ Yasurō 阿部泰郎 (University of Nagoya 日本名古屋大學)
- Cynthea Bogel (University of Kyushu 日本九州大學): The Reception of Early Esoteric Mandala in Japan
- Chen Jinhua 陳金華 (University of British Columbia 加拿大英屬哥倫比亞大學): Yixing as the synthesizer of Chan, Tiantai and Esoteric Buddhism
- Deng Qiyao 鄧啓耀 (Sun Yat-sen University 中山大學): 《南詔中興畫傳》與佛教密宗傳入南詔核心區域的一次文化突變事件
- Lucia Dolce (University of London 英國倫敦大學): A Chinese Tantric Scripture and Its Ritual Exegesis: The Yuqijing 瑜祇經 and the Yogin Abhiseka 瑜祇灌頂
- Geoffrey Goble (University of Oklahoma 俄克拉荷馬大學): Esoteric Buddhism and the Three Great Masters of Kaiyuan
Esoteric Buddhism as a definable teaching or tradition of Buddhism in East Asia is traditionally and commonly associated with the three so-called Great Masters of Kaiyuan (kaiyuan san dashi 開元三大士): Śubhākarasiṃha (Shanwuwei善無畏; 637–735), Vajrabodhi (Jin’gangzhi金剛智; 671–741), and Amoghavajra (Bukongjin’gang 不空金剛; 704–774). The proposed paper examines the historical origins of this understanding of East Asian Esoteric Buddhism, arguing that the perception that these three individuals represent a single, identifiable Buddhist teaching is the product of Amoghavajra’s articulation of Esoteric Buddhism as a new teaching. Relying on textual evidence from the Tang Dynasty, this paper considers Amoghavajra’s representation of Esoteric Buddhism in reference to a core textual canon. This canon was composed of texts translated in China by Amoghavajra and Śubhākarasiṃha and it indicates that Amoghavajra’s formulation of Esoteric Buddhism was an ad hoc product of his own creation. Amoghavajra’s presentation of Esoteric Buddhism and his enormous success and influence resulted in a retroactive evaluation of both Śubhākarasiṃha and Vajrabodhi, according to which these men and the texts they produced were understood in terms established after their deaths by Amoghavajra. Additionally, this paper will consider the hagiographical image of Amoghavajra and consider how Amoghavajra’s ad hoc canon of Esoteric Buddhism informed the manner in which he was portrayed in posthumous texts recording his identity and historical significance.
- Amanda Goodman (University of Toronto 加拿大多倫多大學): The Five Buddha Crown Consecration at Dunhuang: Textual and Visual Evidence
- Tamami HAMADA 濱田瑞美 (Yokohama University of Art and Design 横浜美術大学): 論千手千眼觀音變中出現的如意輪觀音和不空羂索觀音——以大悲心陀羅尼的念誦為綫索
- Ikuma Hirimomitsu 伊久間洋光 (Taisho University 日本大正大學): 『如来秘密経』をめぐってー仏教史における位置付けの解明を中心にー
- Hou Chong 侯沖 (Shanghai Normal University 上海): 形態多樣的解冤釋結——經眼佛教科儀《楞嚴解冤釋結道場儀》敘錄
- Hsie Shih-wei 謝世維 (Chengchi University 臺灣政治大學): The Esoteric Rituals of Marici and Dipper Mother in 15th-17th century China 圖像、儀式與密咒: 十五至十七世紀摩利支天與斗母密儀探究
- Iwasaki Hideo 岩崎日出男 (Sonoda Women’s University 園田学園女子大学)
- Takahiko Kameyama 亀山隆彦 (Ryukoku University 龍谷大學)
As frequently emphasized in various previous studies, Kūkai 空海 (774–835), the patriarch of the Shingon 真言 Esoteric Buddhist tradition, attempted to expound the idea of the manifold correspondence (yoga or yuga 瑜伽) between Esoteric practitioners, other sentient and non-sentient beings, and multiple Buddhas and Bodhisattvas by means of the eminent metaphor, “a vast net that hangs in Indraʼs palace” (Ch. yīntuoluo wang, Jp. indara mō 因陀羅網), within his Meaning of Attaining Buddhahood within This Very Body (Sokushin jōbutsu gi 即身成仏義). In other word, Kūkai clearly relies on the influential cosmological discourse used in the Chinese Huayan 華厳 Buddhism in the text in order to fully describe one of his principal doctrines, “attaining Buddhahood within this very body” (sokushin jōbutsu 即身成仏).
On the other hand, with respect to the doctrinal concept “attaining Buddhahood within this very body,” it is also noteworthy that the Shingon and Tendai 天台 Buddhist monks who hoped to express their understandings of this concept during the Heian 平安 and Kamakura 鎌倉 time period frequently employed the different cosmological discourse widely utilized within the Chinese religious, philosophical, and medicinal fields, that is, the “five phases” (wuxing or gogyō 五行).
In the texts such as the Five Viscera Mandala (Gozō mandara 五蔵曼荼羅), Reconciled Interpretations of the Five Viscera Mandala (Gozō mandara wae shaku 五蔵曼荼羅和会釈), Esoteric Interpretations of the Five Wheels and Nine Syllables (Gorin kuji myō himitsu shaku 五輪九字明秘密釈), authors enthusiastically refer to the connection between innumerable fivefold categories including “five phases,” “five stars” (Ch. wuxing 五星), “five mountains” (Ch. wuyue 五嶽), “five sounds” (Ch. wuyin 五音), “five tastes” (Ch. wu), and “five viscera” (wuzang 五蔵). They called such connection the “five viscera mandala” (Ch. wuzang mantuluo, Jp. gozō mandara 五蔵曼荼羅), and stated that “this five viscera mandala was the ‘hole of the Buddha of dharma-body’ (hosshin nyorai no sōtai 法身如来惣体) and the ‘essence of the yoga and three mysteries’ (yuga sanmitsu no kanjin 瑜伽三密之肝心).”
It is strongly assumed that, during the medieval time period, Esoteric Buddhist monks regarded the five viscera mandala (gozō mandara) as one of the indispensable discourses through which they were able to intuitively understand the fundamental equality and continuation between their physical bodies and those of buddhas. The main subject of my paper is this five viscera mandala which seemed to be widely circulated within both Shingon and Tendai Buddhist traditions since the middle of the Heian time period. Who (which school or lineage) first conceived and wrote this influential mandalic idea? How did various Esoteric Buddhist monks organize and sophisticate it from the Heian to Kamakura time period? I hope to answer these questions through the careful examination of the aforementioned manuscripts.
Specifically, I will first explore the organization of the text called the Five Viscera Mandala (Gozō mandara) after Annen 安然 (841-year of death unknown) who established the foundation of the Tendai Esoteric Buddhism. According to some previous studies, the Treasury of Siddhaṃ (Shittan zō 悉曇蔵) written by him is the first manuscript in Japan which carefully analyzes and integrates the Chinese cosmological concepts such as the five phases into the Esoteric Buddhist discourses. I will compare the descriptions in the Treasury of Siddhaṃ (Shittan zō 悉曇蔵) with those in the Five Viscera Mandala and discuss their relationship.
In addition, I will also discuss the developmental history of the five viscera mandala from the Five Viscera Mandala to Esoteric Interpretations of the Five Wheels and Nine Syllables (Gorin kuji myō himitsu shaku) written by Kakuban 覚鑁 (1095–1143) the Shingon Buddhist monk who revived Mt. Kōya during the end of the Heian time period. I will point out the possibility that Kakuban followed the Five Viscera Mandala and composed some parts of his Esoteric Interpretations of the Five Wheels and Nine Syllables.
- George Keyworth 紀強 (University of Saskatchewan 加拿大薩斯喀徹溫大學)
- Jiyun Kim 金知妍 (Geumgang University 金剛大學): The Interpretation of the Unique Mantra of the Shi moheyanlun 釋摩訶衍論 in China and Japan
The Shi moheyanlun 釋摩訶衍論 (T 1668; abbreviated as Shilun) is the commentaries on the Awakening of Mahāyāna Faith 大乘起信論 (T 1666). This was composed of ten volumes, and, under the title of each book, Nāgārjuna 龍樹 (2nd–3rd century) was written as the author. However, the debate on whether Nāgārjuna was the writer or not began in the 8th century, when the Shilun was transferred from China to Japan.In spite of this controversy, Kukai 空海 (774–835) who is the founder of Shingon Buddhism 眞言宗 in Japan admitted that the Shilun is the Nāgārjuna’s book and placed it a key position in Shingon Teaching. Thus, Shingon monks studied the Shilun essentially, and many commentaries on Shilun have been made by them as well as other Buddhism’s monks continuously. Furthermore, in China, the Emperor Daozong 道宗 (1032–1101) of Liao 遼 valued the Shilun, so he learned and encouraged monks to study this book. As a result, the outstanding monks of Liao such as Fǎ wù 法悟, Zhì fú 志福 published annotation books, and they had been exported to Korea, especially Goryeo, and Japan.One of the common reasons why Kukai and Emperor Daozong paid attention to the Shilun is that both exoteric and esoteric Buddhism are included in this book. In the Shilun, the various mantra are described from volume 8 and 9. In the former, the fifteen things to do to achieve the cessation 止 are explained, and, among them, to keep an altar 結界 clean and to purify the place before building the monastery, ascetics should recite the mantra. In the latter, the obstacles which appear when monks practice are classified into four: binome 魔, non-Buddhist 外道, ghost 鬼, and supernatural 神. Varied mantra are described in the process of accounting the non-Buddhist.The distinct feature of the Shilun’s mantra is the unique shape of characters like. These letters look like the Chinese character which were changed from Sanskrit by sound 音詞. However, they are found in the Shilun, and nowhere else. Therefore, it is hard to understand exactly what this means and where they come from.To date, two Japanese scholars, Endou Junichiro 遠藤 純一郎 and Nakamura Honnen 中村 本然 studied the mantra of the Shilun. Through extending the range from their researches, I try to examine the meaning of unusual mantra of the Shilun by considering the commentaries on the Shilun. From this, I could figure out not only their meaning but also their origin. In addition to reveal the relation and to compare the tendency of esoteric Buddhism in China and Japan, I would like to study both commentaries of China and Japan, and limits my research to the annotation books in the 10th and 13th centuries: Fǎ wù’s 法悟 Shì mó hē yǎn lùn zàn xuán shū 釋摩訶衍論贊玄疏, Zhì fú’s 志福, Shì mó hē yǎn lùn tōng xuán chāo 釋摩訶衍論通玄鈔 (Liao 遼), Pǔ guān’s 普觀 Shì mó hē yǎn lùn jì 釋摩訶衍論記 (Song 宋) in China, and 覺鎧 Shaku makaen ron shiji 釋摩訶衍論指事, Dohan’s 道範 Shaku makaen ron ungkyosho 釋摩訶衍論應敎鈔, Raiyu’s 賴瑜 Shaku makaen ron kaigesho 釋摩訶衍論開解鈔, Sinken’s 信堅 Shaku makaen ron shiki 釋摩訶衍論私記 in Japan.
- Kim Younmi 金延美 (Ewha Womans University 韓國梨花女子大學):The Uṣṇīṣavijayā Dhāraṇī and Pagodas of the Liao Dynasty (917–1125)
- Li Ling 李翎 (Sichuan University 四川大學): 蓮花宇宙論與胎藏界信仰
- Li Zijie 李子捷 (Kyoto University 日本京都大學): Kūkai and Saichō’s theories on gotra (種性)
I have discussed the theory regarding gotra in Chinese Buddhism through several articles, and pointed out that, as for Chinese Buddhism, the theory on stages of Bodhisattva was extremely significant. In this paper, I intend to explore the interpretations of this problem in earlier period in Japanese Buddhism, especially focus on the explanations of Kukai and Saicho. Apparently, the discussions concerning this issue in Japan was closely related to those of Chinese Buddhism.
- Hsin-Yi Lin 林欣儀 (Fo Guang University 臺灣佛光大學)：An Examination of Dunhuang Esoteric Talismans for Childbirth Protection and its Connection with Daoism
- Benedetta Lomi (University of Bristol 英國布里斯托大學): Rituals Procedures for Difficult Parturition in Heian Japan
- David Quinter (University of Alberta 加拿大阿爾伯塔大學): Eison and the Cult of Founders in Medieval Japan
This paper addresses the viability of constructions of a “narrative self” in light of the Buddhist doctrine of no-self by examining Eison (1201–90), founder of the Shingon Ritsu movement, and his narrative and material involvement in the cult of founders in Kamakura (1185–1333) Japan. The paper begins with brief analysis of Steven Collins’s distinction between systematic and narrative thought in Pali Buddhism. I suggest that this distinction helps clarify the relationship between the self of narrativity and of “conventional truth” versus the no-self of “ultimate truth” in Buddhist traditions across times and regions. Then, using Eison and the medieval Japanese cult of founders as a case study, I argue that even among scholar-monks actively engaged in such systematic exposition as that related to notions of no-self, the exposition is embedded within a broader devotional framework in which tensions between no-self and a narrative self dissolve. I conclude by suggesting that notions of no-self posed little impediment to Eison and fellow monastics’ promotion of a cult of founders that glorifies particular narratively and materially constructed “selves.”
- Saerji 薩爾吉 (Peking University 北京大學): 新見國家圖書館藏藏文密教儀軌殘葉研究
- Schmid, Neil (Dunhuang Academy 敦煌研究院): The Dome of Heaven: The Role of Esoteric Buddhism in the Construction of Mogao Stupas
- Shen Weirong 沈衛榮 (Tsing-hua University 清華大學): 論西夏時代漢藏二種密教傳統的傳播與合流
- Elizabeth Tinsley (UC Irvine美國加州大學爾灣分校): An Alternative Cultural History of Medieval Kōyasan Shingon: An introduction to an oracle transcription and what it reveals of esoteric art and worship
- Steven Trenson (Waseda University 日本早稻田大學): Relic and Ritual: Past and New Perspectives on the Development of the Relic Cult in Medieval Japanese Esoteric Buddhism
Relic worship has been part of the Buddhist tradition from the earliest period of its history, playing a crucial role in the spread of the Buddha’s teachings, and has since then developed in various ways, affecting a wide array of doctrinal as well as practical aspects of the religion. There are many details surrounding the relic cult, and the nature of its role and utility varies with time, place, and circumstance, but one of the relic’s most salient features, perhaps, is the significance it bore to the attainment of ritual success or Buddhahood. Relic beliefs spread from India to China and Korea, and eventually to Japan, and it may be said that it was in the latter region where relic veneration acquired its highest form of doctrinal and practical development. Past studies in both Japanese and Western scholarship have already pointed out the great importance of relic worship to Japanese esoteric Buddhism (mikkyō 密教), especially Shingon 真言, illustrating the central place of the relic, or its cognate, the wish-fulfilling jewel, in rituals for the protection of the state and related rites, and in the legitimation of divine kingship. The present paper will build on these past achievements and further offer new perspectives that have been gained in recent years, including the results of the presenter’s own investigations on relic and jewel worship, which have been ongoing for quite some years now. More concretely, the paper will provide new angles on the historical development of relic veneration in Shingon and highlight some not very well-known features, such as its role in the formation of typical medieval Shingon discourses on embryology and the attainment of Buddhahood.
- Michelle Wang (University of Washington 美國華盛頓大學): Visualizing an Esoteric Pure Land
This paper interrogates the simultaneous appearance of Amitābha Buddha and pure land imagery in exoteric and esoteric contexts. Paintings of Amitābha Buddha, as attended by the bodhisattvas Avalokiteśvara and Mahāsthāmaprāpta, are well known from medieval East Asian depictions of the Western Pure Land. Yet Amitābha was also identified as one of the five core Buddhas of the Vajradhātu Maṇḍala and was often interchangeable with Vairocana in the Maṇḍala of Eight Great Bodhisattvas. My paper builds upon recent textual scholarship concerning the intersections between esoteric and pure land Buddhism, particularly in medieval Japan, by calling attention to visual imagery in the Sino-Tibetan and silk road contexts.
- Nicholas Morrow Williams (University of Hong Kong 香港中文大學): Kūkai at Prayer: On the Religious and Literary Rhetoric of a Ganmon
The “prayer text” (Ch. yuanwen 願文; J. ganmon; K. wonmun) has a convoluted history throughout Asia in the first millennium C.E. Originating at Southern Dynasties courts, the form is widely represented among the popular texts of Dunhuang, but is conspicuously absent from elite Tang literature. In the Buddhist state of Heian Japan, though, Kūkai 空海 (774–835) and Sugawara no Michizane 菅原道真 (845–903) both wrote dozens of prayer texts. The importance of prayer texts to Kūkai’s work, in particular, was overdetermined, since Kūkai was at the same time one of the supreme masters of kanbun in the Heian period; a decisive transmitter of Chinese texts and their associated culture, as the founder of Esoteric Buddhism in Japan; and also profoundly concerned with the Buddhist ritual response and philosophical conception of life and death, through the practices and theory of Esoteric Buddhism. Moreover, these three elements of his career are all linked in Kūkai’s vision of mantra as a verbal link between emptiness and cosmos. His prayer texts, which employ mantras and other technical vocabulary of Esoteric Buddhism, are one prime realization of his broader conception of ritual speech. Kūkai, though borrowing from the conventions of the genre as he did throughout his writings, also recreated the prayer text as a more powerful vessel of mantric assertion. Where earlier prayer texts had had a wishful or desperate tone, Kūkai’s were grounded instead in his belief that death was not the ultimate disaster. This paper illustrates Kūkai’s innovative use of the genre through a translation and close reading of his masterpiece “Dakṣiṇā For My Departed Pupil Chisen” 為亡弟子智泉達嚫文.
- Pamela D. Winfield (Elon University 美國伊隆大學): Repositioning Power in Japan: Mandala Installation and the Reading of Empowered Space
When the esoteric patriarch Kūkai (774-835 CE) first imported the Two-World mandalas into Japan from China in 806 CE, he introduced an unprecedented visual and ritual repertoire whose power, he insisted, could “enlighten in a single glance.” In addition, these images could also empower pre-existing and new Buddhist rites for healing, protecting the state, and other ‘this-worldly benefits’ (genze riyaku), but much depended on their proper installation and specific display arrangements. This paper will analyze the various display strategies for the Diamond and Womb World mandalas of esoteric Shingon (Ch. Zhenyan) Buddhism in Japan, and offer contextualized spatial hermeneutics to interpret the ritual-functional significance of their emplacements. Specifically, it will consider traditional arrangements such as the parallel confrontation model and the frontal display model, which are most often discussed in the context of lay or monastic initiation ceremonies (kechien kanjō), annual state-protecting rites (goshichinichi mishihō), and Shingon’s ubiquitous goma fire ceremonies. However, it will also consider new and original (or simply idiosyncratic) examples in modern Japan that nevertheless show the versatility and adaptability of the twin mandala motif for distinct functional purposes. Emplacements on ceilings, on doors, behind founders’ portraits or even arguably in government buildings, all suggest that the functions of Shingon’s double mandala motif range from individual propitiation and commemoration to advancing sectarian and national ideologies.
- Xie Jisheng 謝繼勝 (University of Zhejinag 浙江大學): 甘青川滇地區敦煌胎藏界密教圖像傳播路徑考察
- Zhang Shubin 張書斌 (University of Zhejiang 浙江大學): “文殊六字菩薩一鋪九身”考——兼論不空與大興善寺文殊閣的壁畫繪製
- Zhao Xiaoxing 趙曉星 (Dunhuang Academy 敦煌研究院): 敦煌本《金有陀羅尼經》研究——中唐敦煌密教文獻研究之六 / A Study on the Dunhuang Version of Jinyou Tuoluoni Jing——Researches of Middle Tang Esoteric Buddhist Texts (Ⅵ)
《金有陀羅尼經》是吐蕃統治敦煌時期高僧法成翻譯的密教經典，敦煌遺書中保存了70多件漢譯本和4件藏譯本，數量相當可觀。其中一半以上的漢文寫本書有古藏文題記，及漢藏寫本同時出現的情況，說明這一經典是曾經被敦煌的漢人和吐蕃人共同尊奉。本文以這些文獻為中心，對敦煌本《金有陀羅尼經》進行一次全面的整理，同時討論這部經典在當時翻譯、流通和收存的歷史。關鍵詞：敦煌文獻 《金有陀羅尼經》吐蕃 Jinyou Tuoluoni Jing (vphags pa gser can zhes bya ba e gzungs) was translated by Fa Cheng (Chos-grub) in Dunhuang during Tibetan Occupation. There are about 70 Chinese and 4 Tibetan manuscripts of this sutra in Dunhuang documents.There are more than half of Chinese manuscripts of the sutra with ancient Tibetan notes. It shows that Jinyou Tuoluoni Jing was once respected by the Chinese and Tibetan people in Dunhuang. This paper sorts out and exam all the manuscipts about the Jinyou Tuoluoni Jing in both Chinese and ancient Tibetan among Dunhuang doctuments.