Canonical, Non-Canonical and Extra-canonical – Abstracts

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  1. Laura ANDERSEN, University of Oxford

    The Question of Translation: Interpretation in early Chinese Buddhist Texts

    In the Introduction to his book Coming to Terms with Chinese Buddhism (2005), Robert Sharf lays out the various ways that scholars have understood the assimilation or transformation of Buddhism in China. Rather than affirming one side or trying to find the middle ground between the two paradigms, he points to another approach altogether. Instead, we can ask what questions of Chinese “historical, linguistic, and conceptual genealogy” did the Indian Buddhist texts address in such a way that Buddhism would thereafter be absorbed into the roots of Chinese culture. In light of this approach, I would like to turn to the discussions of translation in the texts of the monks Dao’an and Sengyou and clarify what they understood themselves to be doing in their process of translation. I would also like to include some remarks from Western philosophers Gadamer and Ricoeur on the philosophy of translation. While the questions that Buddhism addressed for China had their own particular Chinese genealogy, the process of translation is a universally human activity, and one that we can learn from greatly in the instance of the early Chinese translators of Buddhist texts.
  2. BINGENHEIMER, Marcus, Temple University
    馬德偉, 天普大學

    The Edition History of the Longshu Jingtuwen 龍舒淨土文 Inside and Outside Canonical Editions

    The “Essays on the Pure Land from Longshu” (Longshu Jingtuwen 龍舒淨土文) (1162 CE) by Wang Rixiu 王日休 (1105-1173) is one of the first extensive texts on Pure Land Buddhism by a layperson. Wang’s Essays have come to be seen as an orthodox presentation of Pure Land practice and for the last eight-hundred years have been widely cited and reprinted. Their influence can be traced from the rise of the Pure Land Schools in 13th century Japan to the 20th century Pure Land monk Yinguang, who is considered the most recent “patriarch” of Chinese Pure Land Buddhism.
    In line with the title of the panel, we will trace the history of the text from its non-canonical beginnings in the 12th century, via various editions culminating in its first inclusion in a canonical edition in the Wanli period and the continuation of extra-canonical editions until today. After its inclusion in the Jiaxing canon (1592 CE), the text was distributed widely throughout China. Independently, a transmission via Korea led to a “Japanese stemma” that formed the basis of the edition of the text as it appears in the Taishō canon. Independent editions of the text were published in the Wanli (1598 CE), the Shunzhi (1658 CE), the Kangxi (1682 CE), and the Guangxu (1883 CE) reign. All in all, there are more than 15 different editions until 1913, for 11 of which we have found copies. Most of these were printed in China, but 3 were produced in Japan, and one in Korea (1859 CE). Many more editions appeared in the 20th century, usually based on the one sponsored by Yinguang in 1913. Tracing the edition history of the text from the 12th to the 21st century both shows how the text gradually spread throughout China and East Asia as well as various changes in the paratext. A sampling and assessment of the text across editions shows how in the absence of critical intervention by editors, the more recent editions are generally inferior to the earlier editions, as errors have propagated along the different stemmata. Next to the number and geographic range of editions, another measure of popularity is textual reuse in form of quotes and references. An analysis of textual reuse proves that the Essays have been widely quoted in later Pure Land writings: More than 150 later texts contain quotes of 40 or more characters from the Essays.
  3. CHANG Qing, Sichuan University
    常青, 四川大學

    杭州飛來峰西方三聖像龕與吳越宋元時期的西方淨土信仰: 典籍與圖像
    The Amitabha Triad Figures at Feilaifeng in Hangzhou and the Western Pure Land Belief in the Wuyue, Song and Yuan Dynasties: Iconographical and Textual Studies
  4. CHEN Jinhua, University of British Columbia
    陳金華, 英屬哥倫比亞大學

    A Comparative Study on Two Inscriptions Related to the Precept-platform at Huishansi on Mount Song
  5. CHEN Juxia, Shanghai University
    陳菊霞, 上海大學

    Transcription of the Colophons of the Thousand Buddhas on the Ceilings of Caves 12 and 16 of the Yulin Grottoes and Related Issues
  6. CHI Limei (International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies)
    池麗梅, 國際仏教學大學院大學

    The transformation and transmission of the Chinese translation of the Daśa-bhāṇavāra-vinaya in the 6th to 11th centuries

    近年來,漢文佛典研究的大幅推進,在很大程度上也受益於形態多姿的文本資源的開發與應用。 以《十誦律》為例,學者們早已無法滿足於近代編印的佛教叢書,他們不但持續關注宋元和高麗等刻本大藏經,並且關注敦煌、吐魯番等出土文獻以及日本寫本大藏經。 為推動相關領域的研究,本文介紹了兩種前人尚未關注的《十誦律·律序》卷下的手抄本:一件是敦煌出土的梁代抄本,另一件是日本八世紀中葉 的神護景雲經本。 透過這兩件手抄本與11世紀的東禪寺版、12世紀的金藏以及13世紀的高麗再雕藏的比較研究,討論六朝隋唐之間南本系《十誦律》的三種形態、 四個階段的演變,擬釐清了6-13世紀《十誦律》的文本演變。
    In recent years, there has been significant progress in the study of Chinese Buddhist texts, largely benefiting from the development and application of a diverse range of textual resources. Taking the Chinese translation of the Daśa-bhāṇavāra-vinaya (the Shisong Lv) as an example, scholars have moved beyond relying solely on modern compilations of Buddhist scriptures. They have not only continued to focus on printed editions from the Song, Yuan, and Goryeo periods but also explored unearthed manuscripts from Dunhuang, Turfan, and other sites, as well as Japanese ancient manuscript Buddhist canons.To advance research in this field, this article introduces two handwritten copies of the Shisong Lv that have not yet received attention from previous studies: one from the Dunhuang manuscripts dating back to the Liang dynasty, and another from the Japanese manuscript of the mid-eighth century. By comparing these two handwritten copies with the Dongchansi woodblock edition from the 11th century, the Jinzang woodblock edition from the 12th century, and the Goryeo recarved edition from the 13th century, this study discusses the three forms and four stages of evolution of the Southern version of the Shisong Lv between the Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui, and Tang periods, aiming to clarify the textual transformation and transmission of the Shisong Lv from the 6th to the 13th centuries.
  7. FAN Jingjing, Peking University
    範晶晶, 北京大學

    The “pariṣad” narrative in the Pali Buddhist canon
  8. GE Zhouzi, Shaanxi Normal University
    葛洲子, 陝西師範大學

    Elderly Magistrate of a Buddhist Monastery: How to Understand “Zhanglao Zhishi Ren” 長老知事人

    The Shishi yaolan 釋氏要覽 [Essential Guide to Buddhist Doctrine], juan 2, contains an entry titled “Shifang zhuchi” 十方住持. Within this entry, the phrase “Zhanglao zhishi ren” 長老知事人 appeared in both the CBETA edition and the Zhonghua Book Company’s annotated version as “elderly magistrate of a Buddhist monastery” 長老知事人 without any punctuations. However, by examining the contemporaneous text and literature from the same period, “Zhanglao zhishi ren” 長老知事人 should be understood as referring to two distinct roles rather than a single combined identity, and thus should be punctuated as zhanglao 長老、zhishi ren 知事人 (elder, and magistrate [of a Buddhist monastery]). The institutional origins of the roles of zhanglao and zhishi ren may be traced back to “adopting regulations from the Yanqing Monastery 延慶寺 of Luzhou潞州, the Jishan Monastery 積善寺 of Huaizhou懷州, and various ancestral mountain Monasteries” (取潞州延慶院、懷州積善院及諸祖山則例) as mentioned in the placard text of the Shanguan Monastery 善權寺 in the later Tang Dynasty.
  9. HAMADA Tamami, Yokohama University
    濱田瑞美, 橫濱大學

    Significance and Function of Inscriptions in Dunhuang Murals: the Case of Vimalakirti Sutra Scenes

    Inscriptions based on scriptures and ritual texts are found in abundance in the wall paintings of Dunhuang Caves. Some are based on the Chinese translations of sutras that are rarely found in the Dunhuang Manuscripts and are valuable sources in considering the dissemination of the sutras. Through the example of the inscriptions in Vimalakirti Sutra Scenes, this paper proposes that not only manuscripts but inscriptions in the murals should also be treated as important pieces of Buddhist literature. Another point to be considered is that the inscriptions in sutra scenes, in addition to explaining the contents of the murals in an easy-to-understand manner, may also have been read aloud in rituals. By examining the iconography of the murals together with the inscriptions, we are able to gain better understanding of how the murals were viewed and understood inside the caves.
  10. HUANG Yi-hsun, Shanghai University
    黃奕勳, 上海大學

    Hanshan Deqing’s Lost Commentary on the Lotus Sutra: A Chinese Temple Edition Found in Vietnam

    Hanshan Deqing’s 憨山德清 (1546–1623) Commentary on the Lotus Sutra (Fahua pinjie 法華品節) is an excellent example of a Chinese temple edition that was transmitted to and reprinted in Vietnam during the Ming and Qing. This text is especially remarkable because it was lost in China and was not included in any Chinese Buddhist canon, such as the Jiaxing 嘉興 and Qianlong 乾隆 canons printed in the Ming and Qing. The rediscovery of the Fahua pinjie provides us with an opportunity to investigate an extra-canonical text which sheds new light on the exegetical tradition of the Lotus Sutra.
  11. Ven. JAHUN, Dongguk University

    Dynamic Transformations: Modernizing Korean Buddhist Texts Through Magazines in the Early Twentieth Century

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the history of translation and transmission of Buddhist texts in the early twentieth century using a new media, the magazine, as a source of inquiry. The early twentieth century in Korea was the period of the national studies movement, in which modern intellectuals who had lost their sovereignty explored national studies to maintain and develop the culture of their nation. The most notable Buddhist translations from this period are Baek, Yong-sung’s Joseongeul Hwaeumgyeong (Korean Huayanjing), the first Korean translation of the Avatamsaka Sutra, and Han, Yong-un’s Bulgyo Daejeon (The Collected Works of Buddhism). However, comprehensive discussions regarding the translated literature and commentary that proliferated in Buddhist magazines during this period have been scarce. The modern Buddhist magazines were a forum for the publication of scholarly works in the fields of Buddhist doctrine and history, as well as modern intellectual history, translation, and Korean studies. This study unveils the pages of lesser-known modern Korean Buddhist magazines to explore the translation and transmission of Buddhist texts during the colonial period. The original materials from the referenced magazines are captured in high-definition digital images and made accessible through the Internet and smart media as part of the Archives of the Cultural Heritage of Buddhist Records Buddhist Culture project, conducted by the Academy of Buddhist Studies at Dongguk University. Therefore, this study also serves as a presentation of a century-long history of multimedia in Buddhist studies, tracing the evolution from magazines to digital materials.
  12. JI Yun, Singapore Buddhist College
    紀贇, 新加坡佛學院


  13. Rusha JIN, University of Edinburgh
    金如沙, 愛丁堡大學

    Why to “Determine”: The Form of the Zhiguan Fuxing Chuanhong Jue in the Landscape of the Buddhist Commentarial Tradition
    The creation of commentarial literature not only acts as a means for the re-creation and transmission of knowledge but also involves a complex interplay with the establishment of textual authority. This paper takes Zhanran’s Zhiguan fuxing chuanhong jue (hereafter Fuxing) as an example to examine its relationship to the establishment of the Tiantai tradition from a hermeneutic perspective. The commentarial form of the Fuxing exemplifies the shift of focus in the Tang Dynasty from commenting on Indian Buddhist scriptures to interpreting Chinese Buddhist texts. However, the nature of this text is more than a “commentary”, as indicated by the fact that its title ends with the word “jue” (to determine) rather than other established terms that signify the genre of a commentary. This commentary not merely aims at offering a version of interpretation of the Mohe zhiguan, but an authoritative version that sets the standard of understanding it. Zhanran’s perception of the elevated status of Zhiyi’s words illustrates that there may exist an underlying hierarchy for classifying Buddhist texts in the minds of Buddhists. However, such hierarchy has a fluid nature, as the authoritativeness of Buddhist texts depends on their conformity with “Buddhavacana” (Buddha’s words), which is a variable standard.
  14. JORGENSEN, John, Independent

    Canons and Interpretative Communities: The Acceptance of the Earliest Text of Chan Buddhism into a Chan Canon

    This paper will commence with theories problematizing the idea of a canon or canon and then examine the issue of the communities who created canons and the notion of an interpretative community. It will take as its primary example the so-called Long Scroll, considered the earliest Chan text that was written even before there was the concept of a Chan School. There is evidence that it was understood as having at least three parts, and different communities seem to have accepted some parts as ‘canonical’ and other parts as ‘extra-canonical,’ though the first part, the Erru sixing lun was always included in the ‘canon’. This paper will examine this text over time and space from the Dunhuang of the 7th to 8th centuries through to its inclusion in part in the Jingde chuandeng lu that had state approval, as well as printings of it in Korea and Japan right through to the present. As a touchstone for some interpretative communities and how they changed over time, I will also briefly examine a key term, biguan (wall contemplation), and how interpretation of it changed over time. From differences about how this term was interpreted combined with which parts of the Long Scroll were copied and used, it is clear that there were discontinuities over time and tat there were different interpretative communities. For example, there is agreement about accepting all three parts as ‘canonical’ by the Dunhuang, early Tibetan, and Korean interpretative communities, whereas the Japanese Zen of the Kamakura only endorsed the first part. Moreover, possibly the Dunhuang, early Tibetan, and the Dongshan famen (early Chan) agreed on the interpretation of biguan, but the non-mainstream Chan, such as the Shelun of the Jin’gang sanmei jing and the Huayan of Zhiyan, as well as the Chan of Zongmi, disagreed with this interpretation. Such an analysis could possibly extended to texts like the Platform Sutra and commentaries on the Vajracchedikā-sūtra, thereby changing the focus of the analysis of Chan from lineage to doctrine.
  15. KEYWORTH, George, University of Saskatchewan
    紀強, 薩斯喀徹爾大學

    On the Category of East Asian Buddhist Texts that Matter: Shengjiao and shōgyō 聖教 as a fundamental and overlooked category of Premodern East Asian Buddhists’ Books

    There is a colophon to Shinran’s 親鸞 (1173–1262) Tannishō 歎異抄 (Passages Deploring Deviations of Faith) written by Rennyo 蓮如 (1415–1499) that reads, “This sacred teachings [book] is one of the most valuable of the sacred teachings [books] of our school; Those insufficiently matured in their faith should not be permitted to indiscriminately read it” (T no. 2661, 83: 735b23). The term used twice for sacred teachings [books] is shōgyō 聖教 (Ch. shengjiao) and conveys two meanings: shōgyō are the most important books for members of this particular tradition (Shin Buddhism 真宗) and shōgyō contain the teachings that merit special attention. In this paper I introduce where the term shōgyō comes from in the East Asian Buddhist tradition—Xuanzang 玄奘  (J. Genjō, 602–664) and his immediate disciples, including Ci’en Ji 慈恩基 (J. Jion Ki, 632–682)—and how it had become a commonly used term by Buddhist scholars since the Tang (618-907) period in China, Korea, and Japan well before the time of Shinran and Rennyo. In particular, I demonstrate how monastic bibliographers from the time of Kūkai 空海 (774–835), Ennin 円仁 (794–864), and Enchin 円珍 (814–891) to the15th century in all traditions of Japanese Buddhism used the term shōgyō to distinguish their sacred teachings books from other traditions’ sacred teachings books. Finally, I show how and why by the early Northern Song period (960–1127), scholar monks in China including Jinshui Jingyuan 晉水淨源 (1011–1088) had abandoned the use of this term (shengjiao), which explains why so few historians of religion in China are familiar with the category of sacred teachings books.
  16. KIM Youn-mi, Ewha Womans University
    金延美, 韓國梨花女子大學

    Fabrics of Faith: Using Clothing as Medium for Buddhist Incantations in Joseon Korea

    This presentation investigates the role of textiles and clothing as mediums for Buddhist dhāraṇī and prayer texts during the Joseon dynasty (1392–1894). Jackets found in the inner space of Joseon Buddhist statues reveal that garments, particularly jackets, were employed to write or imprint various Buddhist incantations as part of Korean Buddhist practices. Interestingly, most of the jackets bearing the incantations were not newly made but were previously worn garments donated by individuals. From the tombs of the Joseon era, jackets and skirts featuring dhāraṇī stamps, as well as shrouds containing dhāraṇī papers, have been unearthed. The discussion examines the scriptural foundations for inscribing Buddhist incantations on clothing in Korea and considers the possible impact of the Liao empire (916–1125) on this practice. Through interdisciplinary analysis, the talk further explores why previously worn clothing, in contrast to paper, was deemed a more suitable medium when placing incantations in tombs and within statues.
  17. KŌNO Kimiko, Waseda University
    河野貴美子, 早稻田大學

    The Creation and Propagation of the Ming-published Illustrated Book “Shishi Yuanliu”

  18. KUAN Guang, Qing Liang Buddhist Association [London] / Wutai Research Institute for Eastern Buddhist Culture
    寬廣, 倫敦清涼講堂/ 五臺山東方佛教文化研究院

    The Transition of Sacred Space and the Translation of Scared Artecrafts: Transmission and Transformation of the Pagoda of Vajra Treasure-Throne from Bodh Gaya to Beijing
  19. LIU Dan, Wuhan University
    劉丹, 武漢大學

    A Study of the Ancient Pratimokṣa Sutra of the Sarvāstivāda at Dunhuang

  20. LU Chengye, Fujian Normal University
    陸辰葉, 福建師範大學

    The Textual Composition of the Chapter of the Practice of Mantra Gate in Jñānakīrti’s Tattvāvātara
  21. Brianna MORSETH, Chinese University of Hong Kong

    Visualizing the Pure Land and Dharma Realm in Transformation Tableaux and Religious Experience: Multimedia Transmission of Buddhist Texts with Implications for Brain and Behavior

    Visualization media in the form of transformation tableaux (bianxiang 變相) vividly depict and transmit Buddhist canonical narratives. Building off previous work linking visual culture to Buddhist texts, practices, and experiences, the present research examines the transmission of canonical content from Pure Land and Huayan texts in multimedia format, both cave art and religious experience. In addition to critically evaluating archaeological data from Qizil and Mogao, I include a uniquely interdisciplinary angle through integration of phenomenological data on the contemporary inculcation of Pure Land and Dharma Realm imagery in the extra-canonical and contested medium of religious experience among practitioners of Buddhist visualization methods, analyzing visualization reports from a psychological study on Pure Land practice and an ethnographic study on Huayan practice. Results of analysis confirm the instantiation of canonical content in reports of religious experience, which is inescapably mediated according to constructivist accounts. Findings are contextualized with existing interdisciplinary research on aesthetic and religious awe, including the relationship between awe and decreased activity of the default mode network, a set of brain regions involved in self-referential processing. Practical implications for ecology are also discussed, corroborating the transmission of canonically espoused values into the extra-canonical domain of brain and behavior.
    視覺媒體以 “transformation tableau” (變相) 的形式生動地描繪和傳遞佛教經典敘事。 在先前將視覺文化與佛教文本、實踐和體驗聯繫起來的工作的基礎上,本研究探討了淨土和華嚴文本中經典內容以多媒體格式的傳播,包括洞穴藝術和宗教體驗。 除了批判性地評估來自克孜勒和莫高窟的考古數據外,我還透過整合現象學數據,納入了一個獨特的跨學科角度,探討當代佛教觀想實踐者在超經典和有爭議的媒介,即宗教體驗中灌輸的淨土和法界意象。 分析結果證實了宗教經驗報告中經典內容的實例化,對受到建構主義來説,這不可避免地調解。 研究結果與現有的關於美學和宗教敬畏的跨學科研究結合起來,包括敬畏與默認模式網絡活動減少之間的關係,默認模式網絡是一組參與自我參照處理的大腦區域。 也討論了生態學的實際意義,證實了經典所信奉的價值觀向大腦和行為的經典外領域的傳播。
  22. Yiwei PAN, Tianjin University
    潘逸煒, 天津大學

    Preliminary Study on Panoramic Maps of Buddhist Sacred Sites: Centered on “Panoramic Map of Mount Wutai” and “Panoramic Map of Mount Putuo”

    古代對於佛教聖地可見一種題為“聖境圖”的繪畫,存世聖境圖多見版畫形式,其中五台山和普陀山的聖境圖比較典型。對這類影像,既有研究或視為遊山的導覽圖,或關注繪圖視角與真實空間的關係。本研究試圖以縱橫兩種版面的《五台山聖境全圖》和《普陀山聖境全圖》為中心,提供對此類聖境圖的初步認識:(1)聖境圖與一般輿圖不同, 強調重要寺院和景觀,容納聖地的傳說和歷史故事,具有敘事意味。(2)這類圖像可能作為朝山的紀念品出現,與道路導覽圖不同,其目的並不在於刻意表達真實,而是在於透過山水繪畫將聖地神聖性和相關資訊納入圖幅,使讀者感知神聖 性。(3)版畫提供了複製的方便,加速了聖地神聖意義在民間的流通,在一定意義上幫助了聖地的傳播。本研究認為,以低成本繪畫方式再現和傳播佛教聖地的神聖性是聖境圖的根本目的。
    Ancient depictions of Chinese Buddhist sacred mountains often appear in a form of paintings named “panoramic map” (sheng jing tu 聖境圖). Extant examples of these maps are predominantly found in the form of woodblock prints, with the maps of Mount Wutai and Mount Putuo being particularly typical examples. Regarding these types of maps, some research views them as guides for mountain pilgrimages, while others focus on the relationship between the perspective of the drawings and the actual space. This study attempts to provide a preliminary understanding of these sacred site maps, focusing on the “Panoramic Map of Mount Wutai” (Wutaishan sheng jing quan tu 五臺山聖境全圖) and the “Panoramic Map of Mount Putuo” (Putuoshan sheng jing quan tu 普陀山聖境全圖), which employ both vertical and horizontal layouts. (i) Panoramic maps, unlike general territory maps (yu tu 輿圖), emphasize important temples and landscapes, incorporating legends and historical stories about the sacred sites, having narrative meanings. (ii) These types of images may have served as souvenirs for pilgrimages. Unlike road navigation maps, their purpose was not to accurately represent reality but rather to convey the sacredness of the sites and related information through landscape paintings, allowing readers to perceive its sanctity. (iii) Woodblock printing facilitated replication, speeding up the circulation of the sacred significance of the sites among the populace, thus aiding in the dissemination of the sacred sites to some extent. This study asserts that the fundamental purpose of panoramic maps is to reproduce and disseminate the sanctity of Buddhist sacred mountains through low-cost painting methods.
  23. SHAHAR, Meir, Tel Aviv University
    夏維明, 特拉維夫大學

    The Library of a Buddhist Priest from Rural South China

    The Southern-Chinese Province of Guizhou is home to lay Buddhist priests. Its tiny villages house ritual masters (法師), who identify themselves as Buddhist. Albeit married and un-tonsured these rural clerics conduct Buddhist-oriented rites for the salvation of the living and the dead. Their elaborate rituals – sometimes lasting many days each – include lengthy prose and verse sections, hymns, prayers, and oral incantations. These are written down in manuscripts that have been transmitted in their families for many centuries.In this paper, I will survey the ritual scriptures of one priest, whose rich library features over a hundred-and-fifty manuscripts, holding together thousands of pages. I will highlight the ancient pedigree of his scriptures (some of which are traceable to the medieval period (唐五代時期)) no less than their indebtedness to canonical Buddhist literature (大藏經). All in all, the ritual scriptures of the Guizhou priests attest the tremendous impact that the Buddhist faith have had upon rural Chinese religion.
  24. SHENG Kai, Tsinghua University
    聖凱法師, 清華大學

    The Writing Process of Zhao Puchu’s “Answers to Common Questions About Buddhism” – In the Context of the Doctrinal Learning Trends in the Chinese Mainland Buddhist Community in the 1950s
  25. SHI Chonghao, Toyo University
    釋崇昊, 日本東洋大學

    Jitanzongle and the Quanshilu

    Although Buddhism was strictly controlled by the policies of the Hongwu Emperor (明太祖) during the early Ming dynasty, Zen monks were also quite influential during this time. One of the most prominent of them was Jitan Zongle (季潭宗泐 1318-1391), a member of the Da Hui school of “Lin Ji Zong” (臨済宗) Buddhism. In this paper, I will try to discuss the version of the Quanshilu (全室錄), the circumstances of its establishment, and his dealings with the Japanese monk Juehaizhongjin (絕海中津 1334-1405).
  26. SON, Jin  / Ven. Jeongwan sunim, Dongguk University
    孫眞 / 政完, 東國大學

    Exploring the Ethical Dimensions and Circulation Patterns of Buddhist Scriptures in Joseon Korea: A Comparative Study of 佛說長壽滅罪護諸童子陀羅尼經 and 佛說大報父母恩重經

    This paper investigates how Bulseol jangsu myeoljoe hojedongja darani gyeong 佛說長壽滅罪護諸童子陀羅尼經 [The Buddha Speaks the Sutra for Obtaining Longevity, Eradicating Offenses, and Protecting Youth], akin to Bulseol daebo bumo eunjung gyeong 佛說大報父母恩重經 [Sakyamuni’s Teaching on Parental Love], underscores the fundamental ethical principles of Confucian society. Moreover, it delves into the striking similarities in content organization and structure between these two scriptures. In essence, by adhering to Confucian ethical principles and further embracing Buddhism, they present a religious aspect that Confucianism alone cannot fulfill. It also contemplates the possibility of these scriptures being preferred and co-published as elements necessary for maintaining order in Joseon society. The prominence of 佛說長壽滅罪護諸童子陀羅尼經 from the Goryeo to the Joseon period, often circulated for spiritual purposes, along with its amalgamation or co-publication with texts of similar nature like 佛說大報父母恩重經, is discussed.
  27. SOLONIN Kirill, Renmin University of China
    索羅寧, 中國人民大學

    Cross Linguistic Study and Historical Reconstruction: Tangut Tibetan and Sanskrit Texts from the 12th Century

    As long as no records concerning the spread of Buddhism in the Tangut have survived, the scholarship has to extract historical information from the texts which originally were not intended as historical narratives. Doctrinal and ritual compositions are now the only source for reconstructing Tangut Buddhist history. Tangut translations when juxtaposed with the mainstream versions of standard Buddhist texts reveal that the source base for the translations were the texts deviating from current standard versions. This speaks to a variety of textual transmission and different pathways of the texts into the Tangut realm and Central Asia in general. Present study proceeds from our current research on the Tangut version of the Bodhicaryavatara, explains certain textual features and makes suggestions of the nature and historical pathway of the Tangut translation.
  28. Lingxi SUN, Sun Yat-sen University
    孫菱羲, 中山大學

    The Performative Forms and Musical Meanings of The Dharmic Musician and The Lotus Boys’ Singing Accompanied Fanbei (Jade Conch)

    The compositions Fayue Tongzi Ji (The Dharmic Musician 法樂童子伎) and Tongzi Yi Ge Fanbei (The Lotus Boys’ singing Accompanied Jade Conch 童子倚歌梵唄), created by Emperor Liang Wudi, are two performance pieces used in the dharma-assembly of equality. They resonate with the images of lotus boy performances in the contemporary Mogao Caves at Dunhuang, jointly interpreting the Buddhist theme of lotus incarnation. Fayue Tongzi Ji (The Dharmic Musician 法樂童子伎) presents the scene of a lotus boy incarnated in a lotus, performing song and dance. Tongzi Yi Ge Fanbei (The Lotus Boys’ singing Accompanied Jade Conch 童子倚歌梵唄) depicts one lotus boy playing the fanbei (jade conch) and another singing with it. The performance of these two pieces at the dharma-assembly of equality served as a way for Buddhism to propagate to the secular world. Additionally, the rulers’ intentions to consolidate political power and foster diplomatic relations were revealed through this event.
  29. SUN Yinggang, Zhejiang University
    孫英剛, 浙江大學
  30. Yu Xuan TAY, University of California, Los Angeles
  31. TER HAAR, Barend, University of Hamburg
    田海, 漢堡大學

    How do new religious groups manage the problem of Buddhist legitimacy for their texts

    After new revelations came into being, their legitimation was an essential part of creating an audience. In the early histories of what we now call Buddhism and Daoism Buddhist texts would be legitimated as the product of revelations of the historical Buddha, even if there is undoubtedly not a single text that goes directly back to him in its later form. Canonicity depends on the acceptation by the hegemonic forces in a tradition that the text in question stems from translation. Daoist texts would claim to go back to revelations by higher order divine figures in their respective traditions. When this is accepted by a tradition, a text or texts is accepted as canonical. With the passing of time, claiming an origin in translation became increasingly difficult in Buddhist traditions; in Daoist traditions the notion of an ultimate teacher provided a solution. Different further solutions for this problem were found, such as commentary, finding a text in a hidden box or cave, spirit writing or otherwise. In this paper I want to look predominantly at practices of legitimation in late Ming Precious Scrolls, which were not revealed through spirit writing and did not claim to go back to the original word of the Buddha. Nonetheless, these texts were worshipped as sacred scripture during the central rituals of the religious traditions that produced them.
  32. Keyu TONG, Fudan University
    童可瑜, 復旦大學

    Supplementary Explanation to the Ode on Shangshuling of Great Tibet, Zhang Khri Sum Rje Building the Shengguang Temple:Discussion on the Establishment and Naming of the Shengguang Temple
    P.t.1070《大蕃敕尚書令尚起律心兒聖光寺功德頌》補校補釋 ——兼論聖光寺的建立
    The Ode on Shangshuling of Great Tibet, Zhang Khri Sum Rje Building the Shengguang Temple
    from P.t.1070 manuscript in the collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France is an important text from the Tibet period of Dunhung. Zhang Khri Sum Rje was a powerful official whom Tsenpo relied heavily on. In his whole life, he was both a general and a prime minister, who played a significant role in the relationship between Tibet, Uyghur, Tangut, and the Tang Dynasty at that time. However, there is no critical edition or reliable interpretation of the entire text, which tells the story of his building the Shengguang Temple. In that case, we would like to provide a more accurate edition from the philologic point of view and correct errors from previous studies.法國國家圖書館藏P.t.1070写卷的《大蕃敕尚書令尚起律心兒聖光寺功德頌》是敦煌吐蕃統治時期的重要文本。尚起律心兒乃吐蕃贊普十分倚重的權臣,一生出將入相,攬政於內、典兵於外,在有史可考的五六十年生涯裡,他在唐、吐蕃、回鶻、黨項關係中扮演了重要角色。《大蕃敕尚書令尚起律心兒聖光寺功德頌》記述了他在敦煌建成聖光寺之事。然此文尚無可靠的校録與釋讀,本文擬從語言、文獻角度出發,對過去的校録訂訛補闕,爲學界提供更準確的録文。
  33. WANG Ruobin, Ryukoku University
    王若賓, 龍谷大學

    The Spread and Influence of Pei Xiu’s Quan fa Putixin Wen 勸發菩提心文 in the Buddhist Community
  34. VERMA, Priyanka, Sharda University

    Beyond Transgression: Exploring Anāpatti and its Influence on Schisms
    Buddhism, with its rich tradition of monasticism, places significant emphasis on rules and regulations, including āpatti (offences) and anāpatti (no offence), governing the conduct of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunīs (nuns). However, the role of anāpatti, exceptions to the norms, is often overlooked in scholarly discussions of Buddhist monasticism. This paper seeks to address this gap through a comprehensive analysis of canonical texts, historical records, and comparative methodologies of major Buddhist schools including Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana traditions, examining their disparities in āpatti and anāpatti. By exploring how interpretations of monastic discipline varied among different Buddhist traditions, this paper posits that disputes over anāpatti were a significant contributing factor to the schisms in Buddhism and sheds light on the crucial role of anāpatti in shaping the complexities of monastic discipline and the multifaceted nature of Buddhist schisms. Through this analysis, the paper offers fresh and valuable insights into the dynamics of Buddhist monasticism and its historical evolution, emphasizing the importance of considering both āpatti and anāpatti in understanding the complexities of monastic discipline.
  35. WANG, Michelle, Georgetown University
    王慧蘭, 喬治城大學

    Buddhist Painting as Visual Commentary

    Taking paintings of the Thousand-armed forms of Avalokiteśvara and Mañjuśrī in the Mogao Caves as a focal point, this paper argues that the pairing of the two deities across opposite walls of cave shrines was not due to a textual basis. In fact, there is little textual evidence from Buddhist sources that explains why the two deities would have been painted in proximity to one another. Rather, it seems likely that the pairing of the Thousand-armed forms of Avalokiteśvara and Mañjuśrī should be considered as an example of visual exegesis.
  36. Minqi WANG, Peking University
    王敏琪, 北京大學

    Biographies, Recorded Sayings and Novels: Interaction and Generation of Literary Genres From the Perspective of Buddhist Literature

    In the context of Buddhism’s secularization, a special category of vernacular literature has emerged, featuring religious figures as themes and interacting with religious literary genres. Particularly, it shows distinct relationships of succession and transformation with the biographies and recorded sayings found in Buddhist literature. With its extensive inclusiveness and creativity, vernacular literature provides a fertile ground for flourishing Buddhist-themed works, and also adopts the stylistic features of Buddhist literary genres, demonstrating the multifaceted nature and significant value of such novels. This phenomenon is not merely a case of Buddhist resources fostering literary creation; rather, it represents a bidirectional interaction where the novels enrich Buddhist discourse. It serves as an exemplary model of orthodox Buddhist discourse merging with and enhancing secular narratives, reflecting a broader phenomenon of diverse stylistic intersections and innovations in Buddhist literature.
  37. Zixin WANG, Fudan University
    王子鑫, 復旦大學

    Sutra Preach Zhuangyanwen in Dunhuang Literature Application Research:Focused on Their Position in Buddhist Ceremony and Sutra Preach

    Twenty-five pieces of Zhuangyanwen of Sutra Preach are preserved among the existing Dunhuang literature,which were written during the period from Tibetan regime to the time of Guiyi Army. Zhuangyanwen of Sutra Preach could be used for preaching sutra commentaries, sutra preaching texts and marvel texts. They were used not only in preaching-focused lectures, but also in the preaching sessions of Buddhist ceremonies, such as Eight Precepts Practice and Olamba. Preaching, although an important part in Buddhist ceremonies, was not indispensable. Nevertheless, it is shown P.2915 Huixiangwen of Sutra Preach that ‘Zhuangyan’ took place in the beginning of a preaching event, and ‘Huixiang’ in the end. Both had the function of passing down merits, but the source of those merits and the subjects and recipients were different. Because of such difference, the sutra preach monk, the audience and everyone who participated in a preaching event all played a part in giving and receiving the merits.
  38. Xiang WEI, Temple University
    魏翔, 天普大學

    The Use of Large Language Models for Translating Buddhist Texts from Chinese Classical to Modern English: An Analysis and Evaluation with ChatGPT 4, ERNIE Bot 4, and Gemini Advanced

    This study conducts a comprehensive evaluation of large language models (LLMs), including ChatGPT 4, ERNIE Bot 4, and Gemini Advanced, in the context of translating Buddhist texts from classical Chinese to contemporary English. Focusing on three distinct Buddhist texts encompassing various literary forms and complexities, the analysis examines the models’ capabilities in handling specialized Buddhist terminology, classical Chinese grammar, and the translation of complex, lengthy sentences. The study employs a methodology where selected excerpts from these texts are translated by the LLMs, followed by an in-depth analysis comparing these machine-generated translations to human translations. The evaluation criteria include the accuracy of word translation, the ability to recognize and correctly interpret specific meanings within both classical and modern contexts, and the completeness of phrases without omitting or unnecessarily adding words. The findings reveal significant variations in the performance of these LLMs, with detailed observations on their strengths and weaknesses in translating specialized terms, managing grammatical structures unique to classical Chinese, and maintaining the integrity of the original texts’ meanings. This paper aims to shed light on the potential and limitations of using LLMs for translating complex literary works from ancient to modern languages, contributing valuable insights into the field of computational linguistics and the ongoing development of translation technologies.
  39. WEI Xiaomei, Dazu Rock Carvings Academy
    未小妹, 大足石刻研究院

    Study of the Buddhist Scripture Translation on Cintāmaṇicakra in the Tang Dynasty (II): Image and Chanting Practice

    At the height of the Tang Dynasty, Vajrabodhi and Amoghasiddhi translated the Cintāmaṇicakra Chanting Practice in two different systems, of which Vajrabodhi reformed the Cintāmaṇicakra image featuring six arms and contemplating appearance based on the translated scriptures of Bodhiruci, making it a new idol schema widely spread. Vajrabodhi’s translation belonged to the Vajrasekhara Sutra system, while Amoghasiddhi followed more the Subhakarasimha system. Later on, there’re several Cintāmaṇicakra scriptures emerging but not found in the Han’s collections of Sutras. Whether genuine or counterfeit, they’re mostly associated with the translations by Vajrabodhi and Amoghasiddhi.
  40. YAMABE Nobuyoshi, Waseda University
    山部能宜, 早稻田大學

    A Reconsideration of the Formation of Chinese Meditation Texts: In Response to Eric Greene’s Comments

    日本學者們早已認為《五門禪經要用法》(T 619)和《思維略要法》(T 617)這兩篇漢文禪經有很多共同要素。意見是《思維略要法》從《五門禪經要用法》抽出。但是,筆者有相反的意見。《思維略要法》有比較合理的結構,反之《五門禪經要用法》的內容極為混亂。因此,筆者認為《思維略要法》的內容混入《五門禪經要用法》的可能性更大。筆者還發現《五門禪經要用法》的一部分和《禪秘要法經》(T 613)的內容有密切的相似性,很有可能人為節略了《禪秘要法經》的部分內容而加入《五門禪經要用法》。如果如此,原來的《五門禪經要用法》比現在的流布本的文獻短很多,原來只有“三門”的討論。一篇蒙古語禪經支持如上推論。關於此事,筆者早已出版過日文(2001)和英文(2010)的論文,最近還出版了中文版(2023)。對此討論,美國葛利尹教授提出評論(2012; 2021)。指出更合理的文獻不一定比更混亂的早。反而,更有可能結構合理的文獻是整理混亂的文獻的結果。所以,他的意見接近日本以前學者的議論。在此,筆者討論和回答葛利尹教授的意見,試圖解明漢文禪經的成立情況。
    From early on, Japanese scholars noted that the two Chinese meditation texts, the Wumen chanjing yaoyong fa (T 619, “Five Gates”) and the Siwei lüeyao fa (T 617, “Abridged Essentials”), share many similar elements. These scholars assumed that the Abridged Essentials was extracted from the Five Gates. However, the present author has the opposite opinion. The structure of the Abridged Essentials is basically reasonable, whereas the Five Gates is extremely disorganized. Therefore, the author believes that it is more likely that elements of the Abridged Essentials were inadvertently copied into various parts of the Five Gates. The author has also found that a portion of the Five Gates and a portion of the Chan miyaofa jing (T 613, “Secret Essentials”) discuss the same topics in the same order, and that a synopsis of the relevant portion of the Secret Essentials was likely incorporated into the Five Gates. Thus, these elements of the Five Gates were only secondary additions. If this is the case, the original “Five Gates” was much shorter than the current version and discussed only the three methods (“doors”). A Mongolian meditation text, which is clearly related to the Five Gates but discusses only the three methods, supports the above hypothesis. On this matter, the author has already published papers in Japanese (2001), English (2010), and recently in Chinese (2023).To this hypothesis, Eric Greene has expressed a divergent opinion (2012; 2021). He points out that a better-organized text is not necessarily earlier than a more chaotic one. On the contrary, it is more likely that the better-organized text is the result of reorganizing the confused text. Accordingly, his conclusion is close to the view of the earlier Japanese scholars (the Five Gates first, then the Abridged Essentials). In this paper, the author responds to Greene’s suggestions and tries to shed light on the process of formation of Chinese meditation texts.
  41. YANG Jie, Sun Yat-sen University
    楊潔, 中山大學


    A comparative study of Xuanzang’s translation of the Yogācārabhūmi
  42. ZHANG Dewei, Jinan University, Guangzhou

    When the Stone Speaks: Contextualizing the Fu Zhuozhou Shijingshan Wangong tayuan ji復涿州石經山琬公塔院記 against the Creation of the Jiaxing Canon 嘉興藏
    In the sixth month of Wanli 20 (1592), Hanshan Deqing 憨山德清 (1546-1623) composed the Fu Zhuozhou Shijingshan Wangong tayuan ji. As one of the leading Buddhist masters in late-Ming China, Deqing had every reasons to add himself to the long list of people paying respect to the monumental endeavor to engrave stone Buddhist scriptures that Jingwan 靜琬 (?-639) had initiated nearly one thousand years ago. It is worth noting, however, that Deqing’s composition came at a precarious moment for the ambitious initiative to compile the future Jiaxing Canon, the last and most expansive privately-sponsored Buddhist canon ever produced in imperial China. The carving effort had proceeded uneventfully and fruitfully at Mount Wutai for three years. However, beginning in the spring of that year, political and ideological opposition escalated and eventually precipitated the relocation of the operation to the Jiangnan region in the seventh month. This shift significantly influenced the project’s trajectory, but the intricacies behind these decisions remain largely obscure. Fortunately, Deqing’s account offers valuable perspective on this transitional phase, and this result comes as no surprise given that the project was led exactly by Zibo Zhenke 紫柏真可 (1543-1603), Deqing’s lifelong friend. The record was engraved on a stele that has since stood at Mount Shijing 石經山and, interestingly, the inscribed stele reveals more information than the account itself, including the involvement by additional influential personalities – Lu Guangzu 陸光祖 (1521-1597), then the Minister of Personnel, Huang Hui 黃輝 (1555-1612), a Hanlin Academy scholar, and Wang Yucai 王育才(fl. 1592), the magistrate of Fangshan county. These figures, along with those mentioned in the record like Zibo Zhenke, Mizang Daokai 密藏道開 (1573-1595?), and Empress Dowager Cisheng 慈聖 (1546-1614), formed a complex network linking Buddhist clerics, royal family members, eunuchs, court officials, and local officials, and it turned out that they all played vital parts in the canon’s creation. With its publicness in nature, this epigraphy serves as a subtle yet potent testament to their shared commitment to advancing the project. This may explain why the significant decisions to move the carving site and to erect the commemorative stele both occurred in the seventh month, thereby marking pivotal moments in the Jiaxing Canon’s storied legacy.
  43. ZHANG Xiaoyan, Fudan University
    張小豔, 復旦大學

    A study on the relationship between Apocryphal Sūtras and Dunhuang Popular Literature

    There are a number of Buddhist-related literary works preserved in Dunhuang literature, such as Sūtra lectures, transformation texts, and Buddhist odes, in which elegance and vulgarity coexist, with popularity as the main. Many of these works were adapted and interpreted from apocryphal sūtras that were popular among the people at the time, such as the Fumu enzhong jing Jiangjingwen 父母恩重經講經文, which was based on a sentence-by-sentence narration of the apocryphal sūtra Foshuo Fumu enzhong jing 佛説父母恩重經; Fomu Zan 佛母讚, which was adapted from the Fomu jing 佛母經; Shiyuan Zan 十願讚, which was directly derived from the end of the Foshuo Xu ming jing 佛説續命經; and the theme of the transformation text Damu qianlian mingjian jiumu bianwen 大目乾連冥間救母變文 was derived from the Foshuo jingtu yulanpen jing 佛説浄土盂蘭盆經, and so on. On the basis of analyzing the inner relationship between these literary works and the apocryphal sūtras, this paper seeks to reveal the important role of the apocryphal sūtra as a source of “living water” in the creation of Dunhuang’s popular literature.
  44. ZHANG Xu, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    張旭, 社科院

    Reconsideration of the Additions to the Zhenyuan xinding shijiao mulu

    Zhenyuan Xinding shijiao mulu 貞元新定釋教目錄 is a record of Buddhist scriptures compiled in Middle and Late Tang dynasties by Yuanzhao, a monk of Ximing Temple. Based on previous studies, this paper systematizes the hand-written and published versions of the Zhen Yuan Lu. The extant text of the Zhen Yuan Lu has been modified by later generations, and the earliest discoveries of this problem were made by Genmyo Ono and Zenryu Tsukamoto. This paper suggests that the two additions to the Zhen Yuan Lu are related to the reorganization of Buddhist sutras in the Middle and Late Tang dynasties and the Five Dynasties period.
  45. Yingzhi ZHANG, Capital Normal University
    張瀛之, 首都師範大學


    《禪門經》是一部唐代禪宗典籍,在《開元錄》中被判定為偽經,但這並未對其流傳造成太大影響。旅博藏《禪門經》殘片的發現,說明西州回鶻時期此經文仍在吐魯番地區流行,而原因有四:首先,吐魯番地區漢文化氛圍濃厚,回鶻樂於吸納漢地大乘佛教;其次,回鶻 佛教對禪宗思想有較高的接受度;再一次,經文中提倡“如來藏”“頓悟”等思想,對僧尼乃至普羅大眾均具有吸引力;最後,漢地此經文的流行也促進了其在吐魯番地區的傳播。
  46. Yuan ZHANG, University of Florida

    Meditation Texts and Contemplative Practices: Huisi’s Essay on the Four Foundations of Mindfulness

    The article consists of a study and close reading of Zhufa wuzheng sanmei famen 諸法無諍三昧法門 (The Method of Samādhi in which All Dharmas arewithout Contention), a meditation manual produced by Nanyue Huisi 南嶽慧思 (515-577). The text elaborates and is generally structured on the fourfoldmodel of mindfulness (nianchu 念處; smṛtyupasthāna), one of the most distinguished contemplative methods associated with the early Buddhism and themodern Theravāda, while significantly less noted in the Mahāyāna tradition. The main line of argument revolves around Huisi’s innovative efforts toinfuse the Mahāyāna doctrine of emptiness and Buddha nature theory with numerous contemplative techniques prevalent during his time, even thoughnowadays most of them are classified under the rubrics of “lesser vehicle” due to their pre-Mahāyāna origination. The article reads the text as anintriguing entry point for analyzing larger developmental trajectories that marked the formative stage of Mahāyāna meditation in sixth-century China.Moreover, by studying the text’s provenance, structure, and contents, the article sheds light on the often intricate interplay between the actual practicesand the textual records of Buddhist meditation.
  47. Yanfei ZHAO, Beijing Foreign Studies University

    Buddhist Translation in the Modern Era: Exploring the Buddhist Translation Policy of the BDK Project

    In the 1970s, the formal establishment of Buddhist Studies as an academic discipline ushered in a significant expansion in the contemporary translation of Buddhist texts, facilitated by translators’ enhanced proficiency in Asian languages. In light of this development, the BDK Buddhist translation project emerged as a remarkable cultural endeavor of modern age. By the end of 2023, 105 Buddhist texts had been translated and published, collectively known as the “English Buddhist Canon”. Based on archival materials and drawing on Bourdieu’s field theory, this paper examines the BDK project’s translation efforts since 1982, with a specific focus on its translation policy (i.e. its translation management, practice, and belief) as well as the interactive dynamics between translators, institutions, and other agents within the sociocultural field. It reveals that the translation policy of the project reflects a scholarly orientation, which profoundly influences both the translations produced and the translators involved. It hopes this study could shed some side light on the study of Buddhist translation institutions.上世紀七十年代,隨著佛教研究獨立學科地位的逐步確立,佛經譯者對古典漢語等亞洲語言的熟練程度顯著提高,佛教文本的當代翻譯事業也迎來了新發展。在此背景下,由日本佛教促進學會(以下簡稱BDK)發起的佛典當代翻譯計畫備受矚目。截至2023年底,已有105部佛教經典譯入英語,這些譯本将作為“英文版大藏經”集結出版。本文以檔案材料為基礎,借鑒布迪厄的場域理論,探究了BDK計畫自1982年啟動以來的翻譯政策和翻譯活動,特別聚焦於其翻譯管理、翻譯實踐和參與者理念三個層面。論文還探討了譯者、機構及其他主體間的互動關係。研究發現,BDK計畫的翻譯政策具有明顯的學術取向,這深刻影響了譯本特徵及譯者的翻譯策略。作者希望,本文可為翻譯機構視角下的当代佛經翻譯研究提供思路啟示。
  48. Q.J. ZHENG, École pratique des hautes études

    Reciprocal Enrichment to Mutual Flourishing: Indigenous Practices and Buddhist Apocrypha in Medieval China

    Buddhist Apocrypha and the formation of Buddhist canons represent a crucial aspect of the historical and cultural evolution of Buddhism, challenging the boundaries between canonical and non-canonical texts. The creation and recognition of apocryphal texts, such as the Consecration Sūtra (T.1331) and various Contemplation Sūtra (encompassing texts like T.643, T.365, T.1161, T.452, T.277, and T.409), underscore the fluidity of Buddhist textual traditions and their adaptability to new contexts and practices.Apocryphal texts, often lacking a direct counterpart in Indian or Central Asian Buddhist corpora, illustrate the localized development of Buddhist doctrine and ritual in East Asia, particularly within the Chinese cultural sphere. They were often created within specific cultural contexts to address local needs and integrate with indigenous practices, played a vital role in the development of Buddhist thought and practice. The Contemplation Sūtra, for example, emerged during a period of significant interaction between Buddhist and Daoist traditions in China, highlighting the dynamic interchange between different religious practices. The ritual use of banners and lamps in the Consecration Sūtra, emphasizing visualization practices, represents another layer of adaptation and innovation within Chinese Buddhism. These practices, while drawing on Indian Buddhist elements, were significantly transformed in the Chinese context, integrating with local traditions and contributing to the unique character of East Asian Buddhism.The study of apocryphal texts and their role in the formation of Buddhist canons thus offers invaluable insights into the processes of religious transmission and transformation. It reveals the complex interactions between different cultural and religious traditions, the evolving nature of religious texts, and the fluid boundaries between what is considered canonical, non-canonical, and extra-canonical. Through interdisciplinary approaches, we can further uncover the rich Buddhist textual history, enhancing our understanding of Buddhism’s diverse manifestations across Asia.