Cross-Regional and Cross-Cultural Interaction – Abstracts

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  1. Paul ATKINS, University of Washington

    Intercultural Intrareligious Exchanges in the Life and Poetry of the Japanese Zen Monk Zekkai Chūshin 絶海中津 (1336-1405)

    During the fourteenth century, there was a robust exchange of people, ideas, and objects between China and Japan, much of which was conducted through alternating official embassies staffed by Buddhist monks from each country, who facilitated diplomatic and economic exchanges through their common language (written Chinese) and religion (Zen). Many of the monks were from the elite Rinzai Zen Buddhist temples that comprised the Gozan 五山 (Five Mountains) hierarchy, based on the Chinese model.
    Among the Japanese monks who traveled to China, Zekkai Chūshin 絶海中津 (1336-1405) is celebrated for his high proficiency in composing Chinese poetry; the close ties he formed with Chinese monks during his eight-year residence at temples in Hangzhouand other sites at the beginning of the Ming dynasty, culminating in a private audience with the Hongwu 洪武 Emperor (1328-98) at his palace in Nanjing; and the high ecclesiastical offices Zekkai attained after his return to Japan. In fact, as a close adviser to the shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu 足利義満 (1358-1408), Zekkai was involved in the brief restoration of official relations between China and Japan in the early fifteenth century.
    In this paper, I will attempt to illustrate the nature of these international intrareligious exchanges, by focusing on Zekkai’s relationships with his Chinese counterparts, including DaoYan 道衍 (lay name Yang Guangxiao 姚廣孝, 1335-1418); Jitan Zongle 季潭宗泐 (1318-91); and Jianxin Laifu 見心來復 (1319-92). All three monks appear in Zekkai’s collected poems, but they followed very different destinies after Zekkai’s return to Japan. These interactions shed light on the role of Buddhist institutions and individual clerics in facilitating religious, diplomatic, and economic exchanges across cultural, linguistic, and national boundaries.
  2. Anne BAYCROFT, University of Saskatchewan

    Christian and Buddhist Textual Exchanges in the late Nineteenth Century: A cursory exploration into modern vernacular printing by Japanese Buddhist

    In the early twentieth century, following the 1893 World Congress of Religion and the subsequent popular reception of Japanese Buddhism in the West, the academic comparative study of religion brought focus to the relationship between—and comparison of—Christianity and Buddhism. The scholarship that followed considered Japanese Buddhist engagements with Western thought, the travel of Japanese men to Europe and America, and their study with prominent comparative religious theorists like Max Müller (1823-1900). The result of these exchanges, such as the compilation of the Sacred Books of the East, co-edited by Müller and his many students, contributed to a rediscovery of so-called True Buddhism, driven by intellectual exchange between Europe and Japan.
    This paper argues that a direct network of Christian-Buddhist textual and intellectual exchange existed far closer to home, most notably between Protestant missionary critics of Buddhism residing in China like, Joseph Edkins (1823-1904), and Japanese Buddhist intellectuals like Ugai Tetsujō 養 鸕 轍 定 (1814-1891). I explore the direct textual and technological relationship between Japanese intellectuals and the Chinese language books printed by Protestant Christian missionaries in Shanghai, China. Through a study of the Japanese reproduction of missionary books, I uncover how Japanese Buddhists not only translated and (re)published critiques of Chinese Buddhism written by Christian missionaries, Jōdo 浄 土 and Jōdo Shinshū 浄土真宗 Buddhists were also some of the first to adopt the means of publishing modern vernacular language texts through the use of movable metal type printing.
    Japanese Buddhists identified the mutual relationship between vernacular language representation and modern typographic printing, and used this technology to increase the scale of Buddhist educational publications into the latter half of the nineteenth century. Operating independently of direct Protestant missionizing, yet tangential to the global network of Christian missionary printing, Jōdo and Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists endeavored to refine the teachings of their sect into authoritative and transportable books. Secular and Buddhist printers alike wanted kanji, kana, commentary, annotation, reading marks, and punctuation, all of which was achieved with the modern typographic tools introduced to China and Japan by Protestant Christian Missionaries.
  3. FENG Guodong, Zhejiang University
    馮國棟, 浙江大學
  4. GE Chengyong, State Administration of Cultural Heritage
    葛承雍, 國家文物局
  5. Mijin GU, Dongguk University
    具美眞, 東國大學

    The Buddhist Cultural Exchange and Historical Significance through the Journey of JianZhen 鑑眞 in the To Daiwajo Toseiden 唐大和上東征傳

    The purpose of this proposal is to understand the relationship between East Asian Buddhist exchanges and cultural influences in the 8th century through To Daiwajo Toseiden 唐大和上東征傳 and to examine their historical significance.
    To Daiwajo Toseiden 唐大和上東征傳 is both a biography and a travelogue of JianZhen 鑑眞, the monk of Tang 唐 Dynasty, written by Omino Mifune 淡海三船, a writer in the Nara 奈良Period of Japan. JianZhen has been a key figure in Japanese Buddhist history, who was a high priest invited to Japan and played an active part in Japan. The hospitality shown to him reflects Japan’s desire for active exchange with the Tang at that time. Therefore, JianZhen has become a symbolic figure who had a significant influence on Japanese Buddhist and social, cultural communities at that time, even though he was active in Japan in his later years.On the other hand, there were also opposing forces against him at the same time. JianZhen’s disciple 思度 Si Duo completed JianZhen’s biography to praise him and asked Omino Mifune to write To Daiwajo Toseiden. As a result, in the To Daiwajo Toseiden, his visit to Japan was highlighted among JianZhen’s major achievements. It shows the significance of his role that he finally came to Japan despite several failures.
    To Daiwajo Toseiden was written against this background, and it is receiving great attention in terms of narrative form and recording culture. This is because To Daiwajo Toseiden has a biographical structure, taking the form of narratives that emerged within the traditions of Buddhism, such as To Daiwajo Toseiden’s legal travel literatures and pilgrimages. Essentially, To Daiwajo Toseiden follows a development similar to that of the Biographies of Eminent Monks. Nevertheless, focusing on JianZhen’s journey to Japan led to the formation of a narrative structure in the form of a combination of travel literature. Therefore, the process of visiting Japan in To Daiwajo Toseiden was more emphasized within the narrative form of travel literature.
    Especially, His journey includes various experiences and an interest in different cultures. Thus, his journey not only conveyed a rich Buddhist culture but also expanded their ideas and awareness by introducing various foreign cultures to the Japanese people. As a result, JianZhen’s visit to Japan, as depicted in To Daiwajo Toseiden, greatly contributed to Japanese Buddhism and culture. To Daiwajo Toseiden can be evaluated as a major documentary on Buddhist exchanges and cultural influences between East Asian countries in the 8th century.
    Therefore, this presentation will focus on the exchange of Buddhist culture according to JianZhen’s journey based on the characteristics of To Daiwajo Toseiden’s narrative. I hope that this proposal will help you understand JianZhen’s journey in the To Daiwajo Toseiden, traces of Buddhist cultural exchanges in East Asia in the 8th century, and its historical significance.
  6. GUO Jingna, Yungang Grottoes Research Institute
    郭靜娜, 雲岡石窟研究院


    Research on Maitreya Images of Early Cave in Yungang Grottoes
    With the spread of Buddhism to the East, the Maitreya faith became popular along the Silk Road. The Yungang Grottoes are a product of the Eastern transmission of Buddhism. Due to the influence of the Gandhara culture and the political connotations inherent in Maitreya, a large number of Maitreya themed statues appeared in the early caves of the Yungang Grottoes. The paper takes the Maitreya statue in the early caves of Yungang Grottoes as the research object, and conducts in-depth research on its statue combination, religious beliefs, cultural factors, and political connotations.
  7. HAO Chunwen, Capital Normal University
    郝春文, 首都師範大學
  8. HE Liqun, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    何利群, 中國社會科學院

  9. HE Xiaorong, Nankai University
    何孝荣, 南開大學

    Rise or fall? The Characteristics and Status of Buddhism in Hangzhou in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
    明代杭州佛教繼續發展、興盛,呈現出以下特點:高僧、名僧匯集,佛學水平高;明代前期的杭州佛教是元末杭州佛教的余緒,明代後期杭州佛教的主體是雲棲佛教;寺院大量修建,名藍望剎林立,是五代以來寺院最多的時期;佛教進一步世俗化,成為“庶民佛教”;佛教義理缺乏創新,宗派沒有發展,佛學更為衰微。明代杭州佛教表面上發展、繁盛超過前代,為清代以前最繁盛時期,但實質上佛學進一步衰微,佛教進一步世俗化,日益成為“庶民佛教”,其地位和價值仍值得肯定;明代前期、中期的杭州是中國重要的佛教中心,明末則是全國佛教中心。Buddhism continued to develop and flourish in Hangzhou during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) with the following characteristics:
    First, many eminent monks gathered in Hangzhou. These monks demonstrated their high level of knowledge in Buddhism. In addition, Hangzhou Buddhism in the early Ming Dynasty inherited the tradition of the previous Yuan dynasty (1206-1368). The main trend in the late Ming Dynasty was the great influence in the monastery where Master Yunqi resided. During this period, more monasteries were built than ever before, especially since the Five Dynasties period (906-960). Furthermore, Buddhism became secularized, and it became “Buddhism of the common people.”
    Other characteristics in Buddhism were widely noticed: a lack of innovation in Buddhist doctrines, no further development of sects, and further decline of Buddhism. On the surface, Buddhism in Hangzhou in the Ming dynasty flourished – it looked even more prosperous than previous dynasties or it could be regarded as the best time before the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). In fact, the more secular it became among the people, the more it declined. Its status and value, however, remained positive. Hangzhou, one of the centers for Chinese Buddhism, played an important role in the early and middle period of the Ming Dynasty. In the end of this dynasty, it became the center of Buddhism for China.
  10. Chelsea HEMMINGS, Seoul National University

    Examining the Indian and Central Asian Influences found in Korean Buddhist Sinjung Taenghwa Paintings

    Recent scholarship has seen an increased interest in Korean Buddhism and the Korean Buddhist influence on East Asian Buddhism as a whole, while bearing in mind the well-known East Asian influence on Korean Buddhism. What has received less attention is the influence that other regions, such as South and Central Asia, have played. Buddhism itself can be seen as a primary example of this. Springing from South Asia, it eventually spread throughout the continent, undergoing constant transformation throughout the various localities and time periods it found itself in. Buddhism eventually made its way to the Korean peninsula through China around the 4th century, retaining non-Korean characteristics while at the same time absorbing and adapting to local beliefs.
    This paper seeks to show that Korean Buddhism has historically been subject to outside influence that was not limited to East Asia, and in fact these influences can still be seen today. It will do so by focusing on examples drawn from material culture, namely from paintings known as Sinjung Taenghwa, or Guardian Deity Paintings. These paintings are often found in the Daeung-jeon, or the Hall of the Great Hero in Korean Buddhist temple complexes. On first sight, they are overwhelming as they contain a wide array of figures. Central to these depictions is the Indic god Skanda/Kartikeya (known in Korean as Dongjin Bosal). Many of these paintings also contain other Brahmanical figures that sometimes conform to Korean artistic styles and other times are seemingly out of place. Identifying these figures is not always straightforward since they have undergone significant transformation from their South Asian depictions. As I live in Korea, I am able to use examples that I have personally gathered from temples and attempt to outline and identify figures found in Guarding Paintings that have a non-East Asian origin.
    By highlighting the outside influences of these paintings, I hope to shed a greater light on how deities and concepts can adapt to localised settings and that outside influences on Korean Buddhist material culture go beyond China and Japan. These examples will allow those who live outside of Korea to get a taste of a facet of Korean Buddhism that is not always easily available to them. This will in turn allow for a greater understanding of religious and cultural exchange in general and will expand our knowledge on Korean Buddhism as a whole, especially when it comes to Indic and Central Asian influence on Korean Buddhism that have been largely overlooked. Finally, I hope to explore and expand on the following questions: why were these deities incorporated into Korean Buddhism instead of simply discarded and what purpose did/do these paintings serve
  11. HONG Xiuping, Nanjing University
    洪修平, 南京大學

  12. HOU Haoran, Zhejiang University
    侯浩然, 浙江大學觀音崇拜与六字真言
  13. HUA Tingting, Zhejiang University
    華婷婷, 浙江大學

  14. Yun JI, Buddhist College of Singapore
    紀贇, 新加坡佛學院


  15. JIANG Jing, Zhejiang University of Commerce and Industry
    江静, 浙江工商大學


    Cultural exchange activities between diplomatic monks and Japanese Zen monks in Jianwen four years
  16. John JORGENSEN, Independent Scholar

    The Cross-religious use of Yogacara and Tathagatagarbha Buddhist Themes in Early Tang China: The Cases of Kong Yingda (Confucian), Cheng Xuanying (Chongxuan Daoist), and Hongren (early Chan)
    “Polysemy, the capacity of the same word to mean different things, such difference ranging from nuance to antithesis, characterizes the language of ideology.” This applies to religious ideology, not just politics, and results in what are called “false friends,” deceptive words having the same form and often pronunciation but different meanings. These homonyms, not just across languages (for example, English and French habit) but also within languages (English gay for example), “which might on occasion, but almost never do, have the same meaning,” can only be differentiated “in a fully established context.” These “false friends” mislead casual observers into thinking that a religion or system of thought has “influenced” another religion or thinker because the different meanings are disguised by the outer form. This has sometimes misled intellectual historians concerned with trans-religious exchange at times into thinking, for example, that Chan is a Daoist form of Buddhism. Therefore, detailed philological research is required to identify such false friends, but also to locate where the meanings are shared in common. This essay examines a number of key philosophical terms used in Chinese Buddhism from the early fifth century until the first half of the seventh century. In the early period, much of the attention will be focused on translations from Indic texts and the Chinese characters chosen to render crucial terms such as “Buddha-nature.” It also examines allegations of influence on early Chinese thinkers such as Zhi Dun and Daosheng by Xuanxue by looking at words such as li (pattern, principle) and ziran (“natural”). It shows that these words are false friends and cannot be used to assert that the Buddhists were influenced by Xuanxue. The last part of the essay shows how this use of false friends was intensified by court-sponsored debates, with some examples of terms such as shouyi (maintain the one) possibly being used to mislead the audiences or reader. Although some work has been conducted in this field, much more needs to be done, otherwise the relationships between various forms of Buddhism and native Chinese philosophies will not be understood.
  17. Laura LETTERE, Rome University

    The Role of Buddhist Translations in Introducing the Arguments against Creationism in Medieval China
    Two similar refutations of Īśvara or Zizai tian 自在天 as a god-creator were translated in China between the end of the 4th and the early 5th century CE. One of these arguments is articulated within the Shi’er men lun 十二門論, also known as the Twelve Gates Treatise (T1568), traditionally attributed to the revered Nāgārjuna, and rendered into Chinese by the renowned translator Kumārajīva. The second refutation can be found in the eighteenth chapter of the Fo suoxing zan 佛所行讚 (T192), which is the translation of Asvaghosa’s Buddhacarita – this second passage is echoed in the Quanfa zhu wang yaoji 勸發諸王要偈 (T1673), considered a version of Nāgārjunaʼs Suhṛllekha, attributed to Samghavarman. Notably, the arguments proposed in the two texts appear remarkably similar to each other, suggesting a shared context of production or the transmission of similar ideas among different philosophical traditions – in fact, one possible antecedent of these arguments is found in the Yogācārabhūmi. This study will shed light on the transmission and adaptation of these ideas within the Chinese Buddhist context – in fact, while in India, the Buddhist refutation of Īśvara was primarily directed at countering theistic traditions like Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika, it appears that in China, to the best of our knowledge, there was no consistent worship of a supreme god perceived as the sole creator of the world. Several centuries after their introduction in China, the arguments against Īśvara proved valuable in constructing Buddhist arguments against the idea of Dao as the supreme principle and origin of the universe as is evident in Daoxuan’s 道宣 (596–667) Ji gujin Fo Dao lunheng 集古今佛道論衡 (T2104).
  18. LHAMOKI, Tibet Research Institute of Tibet University
    拉毛吉, 西藏大學藏學

    Discussion on assigning intercalary month as the way of grub-rtsis in Tibetan calendar
  19. LI Jianxin, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    李建欣, 中國社會科學院
  20. LI Jingjie, Tsinghua University
    李靜傑, 清華大學

    Overall Observation of the Development of Transformation Tableaux in Dunhuang Grottoes
    Transformation Tableaux is the basic content in Dunhuang Grottoesduring the Tang and Song Dynasties, which mainly consists of more than twenty varieties and nine hundred pieces, demonstrates a complete development sequence. It initially developed during the early and prosperous Tang Dynasty and experienced a great expansion during the period of Tubo, Zhang’s Guiyi Army and Cao’s Guiyi Army (Five Dynasties). It gradually declined during the period of Cao’s Guiyi Army (Northern Song Dynasty) and Western Xia. Generally speaking, theTransformation Tableaux can be divided into four categories: Pure Land type, Seeking Buddhahood type, Rescuing Sentient Beings type and the Other type. The Pure Land type accounts for about two-fifths of the total amount and is the preferred content in grottoes. During the early and prosperous Tang Dynasty, the Transformation Tableaux on both sides of the main room was popular with full-wall layout. During the Tubo period, two-row and three-row layouts were added, and during the Zhang’s Guiyi Army and Cao’s Guiyi Army periods, four-row and five-row layouts were added. The full-wall layout accounts for more than half.More than forty kinds of corresponding combinations exist among the Transformation Tableaux in Dunhuang Grottoes with a total of over two hundred pairs. These combinations can be generally divided into three categories: Pure Land type combinations between each other; Non-Pure-Land type combinations between each other; as well as Pure Land type combines with Non-Pure-Land type. In grottoes with full-wall layout, Pure Land type occupies an absolute majority while multiple row layouts often incorporate both Pure Land and Non-Pure-Land together to form corresponding combinations. Generally speaking, the Transformation Tableaux in Dunhuang Grottoes reflects a design logic that puts emphasis on the belief of Pure Lands while incorporating Seeking Buddhahood thoughts as well as necessary supplementary Rescuing Sentient Beings thoughts.The grottoes have become places for preaching doctrines, where sentient beings can receive edification and relief, enabling them to reborn in the Pure Land in their future lives.
  21. LI Ling, Sichuan University
    李翎, 四川大學

    Buddha-image making– The cultural exchange between Europe and Asia reflected in the Buddha-image manufacture of early period
    What was the first Buddha-image made for? How do craftsmen make them? What is the basis of the image-making? Who is the spectator?Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest Buddhist monuments were stupas. The early stupas were not decorated. They were located in the monks’ meditation sites and were the symbol of the Buddha in the temple. The no decoratied stupas and chaitya and were sacred places for monks to worship and perform some religious ceremonies. Moreover, in the early days, monks observed the catvari pratisaranani , and were relatively free in terms of residence, such as allowing monks to live in five types of simple dwellings during the rain period, and were more inclined to live in individual than live together. The Buddhist monks during the ‘vassa vaas’ or ‘monsoon retreat’ used to stay either under a large tree in the forest or in some abandoned house or would build a hut with thatched roof. The king Ashoka was the first to understand the need of permanent shelter for monks and excavated caves in a mountain and donated it. and he made the first cave: Barabar cave. Gradually, This new found architecture spread across India and nearly 1200 caves were excavated between c 200 BCE to c 600 CE.. But at that time, the stupa where the monks held their activities did not need decoration, or only some extremely simple patterns, and no narrative at all. From about the 2nd century BC, with the development of commerce and frequent trade transactions , the cave temples located on the commercial road welcomed a large number of foreign merchants, travelers and scholars, etc. The favorable and unknowing of Buddhism by foreigners prompted monks to change their previous practices, and at this time, the narrative visual Buddhism of “storytelling” began to appear. Decorative carvings based on the narrative of the Buddha life are spread out around the stupa, and most of them are inlaid on the bottom of the mantle of the stupa or on the railing at the gateway. When people enter the space of the chaitya, these stories promoting the life of the Buddha are saw, and these visual Buddhist reading objects or preaching objects are secular people. On this basis, more Buddha images were made .Inscriptions and other evidence show that Buddhist Mahayana thought was gradually spreading throughout western India at this time, and this gradual evolution can also be seen in architecture. One of the first important differences between the Theravada and Mahayana forms of cave architecture was the introduction of a niche for worship in the chamber, which seems to indicate that monks also began to worship ICONS rather than just undecorated stupas. The Nashik caves in western India are an excellent example of this, as mentioned earlier in the early 2nd century AD, the design of the liturgical niche appeared in the Nashik cave Nos. 3 and 10. Nashik built two more caves during the Mahayana period and modified some existing ones, such as the vihara No. 20, which was renovated in the 6th century AD, and a monk’s room on the front wall of the hall was pushed back 5 meters to add a Buddha image niche. This further leads to the question: Who is the object of viewing the Buddha image? Lay people or monks?Where was the first Buddha image produced? What are the reasons for this? What is the basis for the craftsmen to make the image of the Buddha? Who is viewer? This is the topic of my  paper. The discussion focuses on the early images of Gandhara and Mathura, dating from the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, and especially focuses on: The phenomenon of Eurasian cultural exchanges reflected by the three aspects of Buddha hair, Buddha clothes and Buddha hand prints shows that Buddhist statues are natural products under a background of frequent cultural and economic exchanges, and Alexander and Hellenism, which were concerned by scholars in the past, are only one of many factors.
  22. LI Xiang, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    李想, 中國社會科學院

    What Does “guṇavyūha” Stand for: On the Etymology and Ideological Resources of “Pure Land”大乘佛教的佛國信仰,自傳入漢地便吸引了眾多修行人,尤以阿彌陀佛崇拜及其極樂世界往生法門最為興盛。“淨土”的概念是漢地佛教譯經過程中產生的詞彙,它與梵文“清淨”和“莊嚴配置”的意義密切相關。“佛國莊嚴”是大乘佛教理論發展過程中對佛國世界美好品質的構建,“佛國清淨”則是基於宗教淨化隱喻而成立的清淨至極的佛國空間。配置土功德莊嚴、遠離煩惱的相狀,正是國土清淨的具體標準;而清淨土對離染解脫的強調,則為國土莊嚴提供了實踐論意涵。《維摩詰經》中的“心淨土淨”思想,將佛國信仰同大乘佛法基本修行理念緊密聯繫起來。對“心”的主導地位的強調,令這種思想在漢地得以融入主流佛教宗派,成為判定淨土修行合理性的理論依據。
    Numerous Chinese Buddhists practice the “pure land” belief especially Amitabha’s sukhāvatī since Han Dynasty. In fact, “pure land” is a vocabulary produced by the translation process of the Buddhist scriptures, the meaning of which corresponds to the concept of the Sanskrit term kṣetra or buddhakṣetra. Studies have shown that the Chinese characters “pure land” (淨土) are related to the Sanskrit buddhakṣetra-pariśuddhi or buddhakṣetra-pariśodhana which means “purified Buddhas’ Land” appearing in early Mahayana classics.At the same time, another etymological source of “pure land” is buddhakṣetra-guṇavyūha which describes the characteristics of achievement and completeness of Buddhist virtues to the land. Actually, the state of the Buddha’s Lands have many glorious characteristics in both religious and secular meanings. These characteristics can be seen as the manifestation of the externalization of sentient beings – The image of Buddha’s Land is corresponding to the graphical manifestations of liberation of the spiritual world.The relationship between the “purified mind” and the “purified land” is further determined by the two sentences in the Vimalakīrtinirdeśasūtra. 
  23. LI Xuan, Sichuan University
    勵軒, 四川大學

    The Ninth Panchen Lama and Making of Modern Chinese Identity among the Tibetans
    After the 9th Panchen Lama fled to mainland China in 1923, he adopted a political life different from that of ordinary Tibetans, in addition to maintaining his religious life. In order to gain support from the central government, he embraced popular political discourse in mainland China and actively applied the concepts of “Five Races Under One Union” and “Chinese Nation” in his interactions with social elites in mainland China, identifying himself with modern China. As the most highly regarded Tibetan in mainland China at the time, the 9th Panchen Lama had great influence and was supported by a large number of Tibetan elites who, like him, demonstrated their identification with modern China and Chinese. They were thus actively involved in shaping the modern Chinese identity among more of their fellow Tibetans. It is fair to say that the 9th Panchen Lama and his followers and supporters were important participants in the Chinese nation building during the Republican Era and played a significant role in shaping a modern Chinese identity within the Tibetan community in modern times.
  24. LIU Yi, Capital Normal University
    劉屹, 首都師範大學


    The Chinese Travelers passed through the Congling Paths during Wei, Jin, and Northern and Southern Dynasties
    The roads connecting China with Central Asia and India through the northern and southern routes of the Western Regions have long been known to scholars. However, the routes after converging at Congling葱岭, especially within the Congling region itself and beyond, how were they traversed? Which historical figures journeyed through the paths of Congling, and what historical events occurred within this specific geographical space? Research on these topics within domestic academia is not yet sufficient. This article is the second part of the “Chinese Travelers passed through the Congling Paths” series. It delves into the interactions between China, India, and Central Asia during the Wei, Jin, and Northern and Southern Dynasties period, focusing on envoys, monks, and commercial activities along the Congling Paths and the surrounding routes. It discusses the travels of monks such as Kumarajiva鸠摩罗什, Tanmeng昙猛, Faxian法显, Zhimeng智猛, Dharmodgata昙无竭, Daorong道荣, Huisheng惠生, and others in the Congling region, as well as the routes chosen by envoys such as Gu Weilong谷巍龙 and Song Yun宋云. Building upon previous research, the aim is to further refine the geographical context of these figures and events associated with Congling.
  25. LIU Yimin, Sichuan University
    劉益民, 四川大學


  26. LÜ Bo, Wuhan University
    呂博, 武漢大學

  27. LUO Rufei, Zhejiang University
    駱如菲, 浙江大學

    Kashmir, Western Xizang and Dunhuang: A Study of the Sugatisandarśana Lokeśvara Images in Western Xizang from the 11th to 12th Centuries
  28. MIAO Lihui, Kucha Research Institute
    苗利輝, 龟兹研究院


    Transmission and Variation-From Gandhara to Kucha
    位於絲綢之路重要節點上的龜茲,與犍陀羅地區一直有著密切聯繫,兩地的佛教藝術也因此互相影響。關於龜茲石窟中的犍陀羅藝術因素,以往的研究多 為對現象的描述,對其進入龜茲地區以後的發展演變並未給予足夠關注,缺乏全 面性和深刻性。有鑒於此,作者特撰本文,從建築、雕塑和壁畫三個方面對龜茲 石窟中的犍陀羅因素進行探討,發現龜茲石窟藝術的發展是從開始對犍陀羅藝術的 模仿,逐漸演變為將犍陀羅因素融合進自身的審美體系,從而創造出了具有鮮明本 土特色的龜茲風佛教藝術,並向外傳播。
    Located at the important node of the Silk Road, Kucha has always been in close contact with the Gandhara region. The Buddhist art of the two places has been influenced by each other. Regarding the Gandhara art elements in the Kucha caves, previous studies have mostly described the phenomenon, but did not pay enough attention to the development and evolution of Gandhara art after its entry into the Kucharegion, which lacks comprehensiveness and profoundness. In view of this, this paper discusses the Gandhara factors in the Kucha caves from three aspects, namely, architecture, sculpture and murals, and found that the development of Kucha caves art started from the imitation of Gandhara art and gradually evolved into the integration of Gandhara factors into its own aesthetic system, thus creating Kucha style Buddhist art with distinctive local characteristics and spreading it to the outside world.
  29. Ven. MUNKWANG, Dongguk University
    文光, 東國大學

    A Study on the Buddhist Interpretation of the Zhuangzi (莊子) by Seon (禪) master Tanheo

    Seon master Tanheo (呑虛, 1913~1983) was a prominent monk and philosopher representing 20th-century Korea. As a scholar, he translated the Huayanjing (華嚴經 Avatamsaka Sutra) into Korean over 18 years, along with commentaries on Qing liang zhuo (淸凉䟽) and Tong xuan lun (通玄論). He also translated Confucian classics such as Zhouyi (周易) and Daoist works including Laozi (老子) and Zhuangzi (莊子) alongside previous commentaries. Particularly noteworthy is his profound understanding of Zhuangzi’s Inner Chapters (內七篇), having memorized all of them, demonstrating his scholarly excellence in the field of Daoist philosophy.
    This presentation will delve into Ven. Tanheo’s interpretations of the seven inner chapters of Zhuangzi, integrating Buddhist and Daoist perspectives. Ven. Tanheo elucidated the core concepts of the seven chapters highlighting their fusion with Buddhist doctrines – namely the absence of self (無己) of “Free and Easy Wandering (逍遙遊)”, transformation of things (物化) of “Discussion on Making All Things Equal (齊物論)”, following the middle way of one’s nature (緣督) of the “Secret of Caring or Nurturing Life (養生主)”, the fasting of the mind (心齋) of the “World of Men (人間世)”, forgetting shape or appearance (忘形) of the “Sign of Complete Virtue (德充符)”, sitting and forgetting (坐忘) of the “Great and Venerable Teacher (大宗師)” and chaos (渾沌) of Fit for Emperors and Kings (應帝王).
    This paper aims to provide a scholarly analysis of these interpretations. Ven. Tanheo emphasized the fundamental harmony between Buddhist and Daoist ideologies, further shedding light on the unity (不二) of East Asian Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism in terms of their fundamental principles. Through his Buddhist interpretation of the seven inner chapters of Zhuangzi, he ultimately stressed the unity of East Asian philosophical thought. This presentation will delve into the specifics of his analysis, adding significance to our understanding.
  30. NIE Jing, Wuhan University
    聶靖, 武漢大學

    Buddha on Horseback: Population movements and the spread of Buddhism before the founding of the Kitan Empire
    During the period from Northern and Southern Dynasties to the end of Tang Dynasty, there were two major trends among the Kitan people: self-reliance and submission. The group that lived outside the Great Wall and those who submitted to central dynasties had different living spaces and trajectories. Buddhism was used as one of the means to conciliate the submitted Kitan by the central dynasties. In Northern Wei Dynasty, the establishment of the Wanfotang 萬佛堂 Grottoes symbolized the spread of Buddhism among the Kitan people. During Tang Dynasty, the submitted Kitan in the vassal states embraced Buddhism in the process of interaction with Han people. Due to invasions, rebellions, and other events, people migrated between the indigenous and submitted Kitan, which led to the spread of Han Buddhism into the steppe. Because of the insufficient social development, Buddhist temples and institutions not existed on the steppe until cities were built by Abaoji 阿保機. The worship of Guanyin 觀音 represents a unique case in the spread of Buddhism on the grasslands. During the Wu Zhou period, the remaining rebel troops of Li Jinzhong 李盡忠 and Sun Wanrong 孫萬榮took this belief into the steppe as part of their war memories, which triggered the story of Emperor Liao Taizong relocating the Guanyin statue from Youzhou 幽州Dabei Pavilion 大悲閣to Mount Muye 木葉山 and enshrining it as his family deity.
  31. NIU Weixing, University of Science and Technology of China
    鈕衛星, 中國科學

    On the Rāhu and Ketu in the Horā Chart of Toji Kyoto
    The Horā Chart in the collection of the Kyoto Toji can be seen as an image version of the Esoteric Buddhist sutra Brahmahoranavagraha in the Taishopitaka. However, upon careful comparison, it can be found that the description of the two hidden bodies, Rāhu and Ketu, in the Horā Chart, especially the description of Ketu, is different from the corresponding description in the Brahmahoranavagraha. This difference actually reflects the transformation of meaning that occurred during the dissemination of these two astronomical concepts originating from India and even Greece. A thorough interpretation of this transformation can demonstrate the rich details of the absorption, integration and transformation of foreign knowledge by local culture during the dissemination of astronomy together with the spreading of Buddhism.
  32. PAN Xiaoxi, Zhejiang University
    潘小溪, 浙江大學

  33. QIU Gaoxing, Jiliang University
    邱高興, 計量大學
  34. Bruce RUSK, UBC
    阮思德, 加拿大英屬哥倫比亞大學

    Altared States: Imagining Early-Ming Imperial Religious Practice in the High Qing
  35. SHI Qing, Zhejiang University
    石青, 浙江大學

    A Research on Buddhist Encyclopedias in the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the Southern Dynasty
  36. SUN Yiping, Nanjing University
    孫亦平, 南京大學


    Cross-Regional and Cross-Cultural Interactions Among Asian Religions: An Examination of the Tea Ceremony, Zen Buddhism, and the path to immortality of Okakura Tenshin
    In the process of advocating the “Revitalization of Asia”, the modern Japanese philosopher Okakura Tenxin took the Eastern Taoist culture with Chinese Taoism as the core as the perspective, and talked about tea drinking and the way of tea. By analyzing the relationship between tea ceremony, Zen Buddhism, and immortality, he proposed to regard tea ceremony as a disguised form of“philosophical Taoism”, and to connect East Asian countries into an “Asian unity” with its independent personality. Okakura Tenxin expressed his practical practice of Zen and Xiandao in Eastern culture through the“Way of Tea”, and also promoted cross regional and cross cultural interaction among Asian religions, which became a driving force for Okakura Tenxin to construct the “Revitalization of Asia”.
  37. SUN Yinggang, Zhejiang University
    孫英剛, 浙江大學
  38. Laurent VAN CUTSEM, Ghent University

    Texts Within Texts: A Study of the Fragments of the Baolin zhuan 寶林傳 Quoted in the Keitoku dentō shōroku 景德傳燈鈔錄
    Building on the pioneering research of Shiina Kōyū 椎名宏雄, this paper investigates the fragments of the Baolin zhuan 寶林傳 (BLZ) quoted in the Keitoku dentō shōroku 景德傳燈鈔錄 (DTSR) housed at Komazawa University Library 駒澤大学図書館. The study aims to compare these excerpts with the parallel passages of the Jin zang 金藏 version of the BLZ. The primary objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to provide the first comprehensive study of the DTSR, encompassing its codicological and textual characteristics, structural framework, and contents; (2) to identify and transcribe all quotations of the BLZ in the extant fascicles of the DTSR; and (3) to evaluate and ascertain the reliability of the fragments of the BLZ cited in the DTSR. More generally, this study aims to shed light of the version of the BLZ available to the DTSR’s compiler(s) in 14th-century Japan, thereby offering insights into both the development of Chan as a pan East-Asian tradition and the dynamics of cross-cultural textual exchange between China and Japan.
  39. Brian VICTORIA, Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies

    The Cost to Buddhism of Religious Tolerance: The Case of Buddhism and Shinto in Japan

    For many observers, both within and without the faith, Buddhism’s tolerance of other religions is one of its many attractive features. This feature remains especially attractive today in light of the many ongoing religious clashes, e.g., between Hindus and Muslims in India, Muslims and Jews in Israel/Palestine, and Orthodox Christians in Ukraine and Russia, both of whom claim to be fighting “holy wars” against each other.
    Yet, as far as Buddhism is concerned, seldom, if ever, has the question been raised concerning the cost of Buddhism’s religious tolerance to the Buddha Dharma that it teaches. Has the Buddha Dharma been changed, possibly even eviscerated, due to its willingness to accept/tolerate the indigenous religions it encountered during its expansion throughout Asia?
    While a comprehensive answer to this question is too broad to examine, this paper will focus on just one country, i.e., Japan, and the interplay Buddhism experienced over the years with the indigenous religion of Shinto. For example, when Buddhism was first formally introduced to Japan in the sixth century, the ‘Buddha’ was initially considered, albeit controversially, to be a more powerful ‘kami’ (deity) than the numerous, indigenous Shinto kami.
    What was effect of turning the Buddha into a deity capable of bestowing wealth and long life, healing disease, protecting the nation, etc.? What impact did this have on the role of the Buddha as the source of the Buddha Dharma? Additionally, what was the effect on Buddhism in Japan when Hachiman, the Shinto kami of war, was inducted into the Buddhist pantheon with the rank of Bodhisattva (J. Hachiman Bosatsu)? Was a Buddhism of peace thereby changed into a religion of war?
    To be sure, and as this paper will note, there were many positive aspects to Buddhism’s willingness to tolerate, even promote, Shinto in Japan. These positive aspects have long been introduced in books and articles on Buddhism in Japan. Yet, at the same time, the seldom asked question must also be raised, i.e., what was the cost (or the harm done) to the teachings of Buddhism for its tolerance of Shinto? A well-known Japanese proverb states, “The person who went to get a mummy, [instead] became a mummy” (J. Miira tori ga miira ni natta). Could Buddhism’s tolerance of Shinto for approximately 1,500 years have contributed to its current enervated state in Japan? These and other possibilities will be explored in the proposed paper.
  40. WANG Dawei, Sichuan University
    王大偉, 四川大學


  41. WANG Jun, Yunnan Provincial Museum
    王珺, 雲南省博物館

    Analysis of the Makara Images in Southeast Asia from the Communication and Mutual Learning among Civilizations
  42. WANG Nan, Peking University
    王楠, 北京大學

    在原始佛教中,四大種(catvāri mahābhūtāni)學説被認為是關於構成色法的究極要素的根本學説。根據四大種說,我們在日常中所感知到的物質對象都是由四大種(即地、水、火、風)所構成的。四大種的學説與現代物理學的粒子理論有所不同,比起客觀存在的構成物質的粒子概念,四大種學説更加注重於分析可以被人直接或主觀地感知到的物質的某些固有屬性。隨後,或許是由於受到了希臘哲學的影響,從某一時期開始,極微(paramāṇu)說也被引入到佛教之中。極微更接近於現代物理學的粒子概念,該理論定義了構成物質的最小單位。這在佛教内部引起了關於四大種理論與極微理論應如何共存的大討論。同時,極微理論本身亦存在矛盾。根據定義,極微本身是不具有大小的。但不具有大小的極微卻又能夠構成具有大小的物質。如何調和這兩者之間的矛盾成爲了阿毗達摩論師們的一大課題。本文擬將極微分爲兩個層次進行討論。即物理的極微(或亦可稱爲現實的極微)與數學的極微(或亦可稱爲理念的極微)。通過引入現代物理學與數學的知識,試圖為現代人理解有部極微理論提供一個新的視角。
  43. WANG Qiyuan, Fudan University
    王啟元, 復旦大學

  44. Luchun WU, British Library/Zhejiang Provincial Museum
    吳廬春, 大英圖書館/浙江省博物館
    A Study of the Two Versions of the Eighty-juan Dafangguang fo huayan jing 大方廣華嚴經 Inscribed on the Leifeng Pagoda 雷峰塔, Hangzhou

    This study investigates the two versions of the eighty-juan Dafangguang fo huayan jing 大方廣華嚴經 (hereafter Huayan jing) carved consecutively on the Leifeng Pagoda 雷峰塔 in Hangzhou 杭州. The original version was carved around 977 in the last stages of the pagoda’s construction and seemingly covered only the first thirty-two fascicles of the Huayan jing. The second version was carved during the restoration of the pagoda around 1199, covering the first thirty-three fascicles of the text. This paper provides a comparative philological analysis of these two versions. First, I examine the use of different words, variant characters, and distinct writing styles employed in the two versions. Second, I conduct a contextualized study of related authoritative versions of the eighty-juan Huayan jing, such as that found at Fengyukou 風峪口 in Shanxi Province 山西省, the Jin zang 金藏 version, the second Goryeo 高麗 edition, and selected printed versions of the Song dynasty. Finally, the study aims to shed light on the initial construction project of the Leifeng Pagoda and its restoration during the Southern Song dynasty.
  45. ZHANG Dewei, Jinan University
    張德偉, 暨南大學
  46. ZHANG Fenglei, Renmin University of China
    張風雷, 中國人民大學

  47. ZHANG Meiqiao, Zhejiang University
    張美僑, 浙江大學

  48. Yu ZHANG, Shanghai International Studies University
    張煜, 上海外國語大學

    Irony or metaphor?——The Underworld and Sexual Writing in Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio

    《聊齋誌異》的寫作,既不是完全寫實,也不是完全虛構。 蒲松齡描寫地獄、狐鬼,更多是用來發紓心中不平,倡導仁義道德。 其幽冥文學,是對現實世界苦難的一種曲折表達,其中包含諷寓官場腐敗,夫婦不睦等,既歌頌反抗精神,又服膺因果報應。 其描寫兩性世界,則重視“以情不以淫”,是對明末湯顯祖《牡丹亭》以來的鬼魂文學的繼承和發揚,狐鬼也可以看作是某種隱喻,其中所表達的情感, 完全是屬於人類的。 《聊齋誌異》中的某些故事,也受到了印度佛教故事的影響。 但是這些影響,是比較曲折的。 《聊齋誌異》所取得的文學成就,更多是源自蒲松齡的生花妙筆與匠心獨造。
    The writing of Liaozhai zhiyi is neither completely realistic nor completely fictional. Pu Songling’s description of hell, foxes and ghosts is mainly used to relieve his grievances and to advocate virtue and morality. His writing of the Underworld is a twisted expression of suffering of the real world, including satire of official corruption and portrayal of marital discord. It not only celebrates the spirit of resistance but also accepts the principle of Karma. His description of the relationship between the sexes emphasizes “love rather than lust”, which is the inheritance and development of the kind of literature of ghosts that has been written since Tang Xianzu’s Peony Pavilion in the late Ming Dynasty. The description of foxes and ghosts can also be regarded as a use of metaphor, in which the emotion expressed is entirely human. Some stories in Records of the Strange are also influenced by Indian Buddhist stories. But these influences are rather intricate and convoluted. The literary achievements of Liaozhai zhiyi are more derived from Pu Songling’s skillful writing and intellectual ingenuity.
  49. ZHAO Qingshan, Lanzhou University
    趙青山, 蘭州大學

  50. ZHAO Wen, Nankai University
    趙文, 南開大學絲綢之路上的佛教瑜伽師及其對漢傳佛教之影響
    The Buddhist Yoga Practitioners along the Silk Road and Their Influence on Chinese Buddhism
  51. ZHAO You, Peking University
    趙悠, 北京大學

  52. ZHOU Liqun, Beijing Foreign Studies University
    周利群, 北京外國語大學

  53. ZONG Yanhong, International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies
    宗艷紅, 國際佛教學大學院大學

    A Study on the Successive Abbots of Fayun Temple (法雲寺) in Dongjing (東京) during the Northern Song Dynasty
    Fayun Temple 法雲寺 was a Chan temple located in the capital city of Dongjing (東京, also known as Bianjing汴京) in the late Northern Song Dynasty, which survived for about half a century (about 43 years) through the three Emperors of Shenzong 神宗, Zhezong哲宗, and Huizong 徽宗, and the four generations of abbots, namely, Yuantong Faxiu 圓通法秀, Datong Shanben 大通善本, Foguo Weibai 佛國惟白, and Fozhao Gao 佛照杲. Although Fayun Temple eventually disappeared with the demise of the Northern Song Dynasty, it was still highly regarded by the royal family and honored by the followers, and contributed greatly to the development of Chan Buddhism, especially the Yunmen 雲門sect, in Bianjing and the northern region. Therefore, this paper focuses on Fayun Temple, and by examining the four generations abbots of Fayun Temple and using the alternating time of the four generations as a clue, it provides an overlooking view of the history of Fayun Temple and finally outlines the history of Fayun Temple.